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Biology 1/18/11. New learning Targets & Table of Contents Chapter 9 Read and Define vocabulary 9.1 PS Lab 9.1 Notes 9.1. Energy in a Cell. Chapter 9. Cells Using Biochemical Energy. Essential for life: Active transport Movement Photosynthesis Protein Synthesis Cellular respiration

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biology 1 18 11
Biology 1/18/11
  • New learning Targets & Table of Contents Chapter 9
  • Read and Define vocabulary 9.1
  • PS Lab 9.1
  • Notes 9.1
cells using biochemical energy
Cells Using Biochemical Energy

Essential for life:

  • Active transport
  • Movement
  • Photosynthesis
  • Protein Synthesis
  • Cellular respiration
  • All other cellular reactions
what is atp

9.1

What Is ATP?
  • Energy used by all Cells
  • Broken down into:
  • 1. Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)-1 phosphate group
  • 2. Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) – 2 phosphate groups
  • 3. Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP)- 3 phosphate groups
chemical structure of atp
Chemical Structure of ATP

Adenine Base

3 Phosphates

Ribose Sugar

*ATP contains two,

high-energy phosphate bonds

*Also contains the nitrogen base adenine & a ribose sugar

what does atp do for you
What Does ATP Do for You?

It supplies YOU withENERGY!

how do we get energy from atp
How Do We Get Energy From ATP?

By breaking the high- energy bonds between the last two phosphates in ATP

how does that happen
How Does That Happen?

An Enzyme that breaks the phosphate bonds!

ATPase

how is atp re made
How is ATP Re-Made?

The reverse of the previous process occurs.

Another Enzyme is used!

ATP Synthetase

the adp atp cycle
The ADP-ATP Cycle

ATP Synthetase

ATP-ase

more on atp
More on ATP
  • Cells Have Enough ATP To Last For A Few Seconds
  • ATP must constantly be made
  • ATP Transfers Energy Very Well
  • ATP Is NOT Good At Energy Storage
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • Is the process that plants use to trap the sun’s energy and build carbohydrates such as glucose, that store energy
autotrophs
Autotrophs

Plants and some other types of organisms that contain chlorophyll are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.

pigments
Pigments
  • In addition to water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, photosynthesis requires Pigments
  • Chlorophyll is the primary light-absorbing pigment in autotrophs
  • Where is chlorophyll found?
  • Why are leaves green?
light and pigments
Light and Pigments
  • Energy From The Sun Enters Earth’s Biosphere AsPhotons
  • Photon = Light Energy Unit
  • Light Contains AMixture Of Wavelengths
  • Different Wavelengths HaveDifferent Colors
photosynthesis has 2 phases
Photosynthesis has 2 Phases:

1. Light Dependent Reaction – convert light energy into chemical energy which then helps to fuel the next step

    • occurs in the chloroplasts in the membranes of the thylakoids disks.
  • Light Independent Reaction – produces glucose
    • takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast
light dependent reactions
Light Dependent Reactions
  • Occurs across the thylakoid membranes
  • Uses light energy
  • Produce Oxygen from water
  • Convert ADP to ATP
  • Also convert NADP+ into the energy carrier NADPH
inside a chloroplast
Inside A Chloroplast

Light dependent rxn

photosynthesis begins
Electrons are energized and passed to the Electron Transport Chain

Lost electrons are replaced from the splitting of water into 2H+, free electrons, and Oxygen

2H+ pumped across thylakoid membrane

Photosynthesis Begins
function of the stroma
Function of the Stroma

GEL LIKE MATERIAL

  • Light Independent reactions occur here
  • ATP used to make carbohydrates like glucose
  • Location of the Calvin Cycle
inside a chloroplast1
Inside A Chloroplast

Light independent rxn

Light dependent rxn

energy carriers
Energy Carriers
  • Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP+)
  • NADP+ = Reduced Form
  • Picks Up 2 high-energy electrons and H+from the Light Reaction to form NADPH
  • NADPH carries energy to be passed on to another molecule
photosystem i
Photosystem I

High-energy electrons are moved to Photosystem I through the Electron Transport Chain

Energy is used to transport H+ from stroma to inner thylakoid membrane

NADP+ converted to NADPH when it picks up 2 electrons & H+

phosphorylation
Phosphorylation

Enzyme in thylakoid membrane called ATP Synthetase

As H+ ions passed through thylakoid membrane, enzyme binds them to ADP

Forms ATP for cellular

light reaction summary
Light Reaction Summary

Reactants:

  • H2O
  • Light Energy

Energy Products:

  • ATP
  • NADPH
light independent reaction
Light Independent Reaction
  • ATP & NADPH from light reactions used as energy
  • Atmospheric C02 is used to make sugars like glucose and fructose
  • Six-carbon Sugars made during the Calvin Cycle
  • Occurs in the stroma
the calvin cycle1
The Calvin Cycle
  • Two turns of the Calvin Cycle are required to make one molecule of glucose
  • 3-CO2 molecules enter the cycle to form several intermediate compounds (PGA)
  • A 3-carbon molecule called Ribulose Biphosphate (RuBP) is used to regenerate the Calvin cycle
factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis
  • Amount of available water
  • Temperature
  • Amount of available light energy
when is atp made in the body

9.3

When is ATP Made in the Body?

During a Process called Cellular Respiration that takes place in both Plants & Animals

cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration
  • What is it?????
  • 3 stages
    • Glycolysis (anaerobic)
    • Citric acid cycle aka Kreb Cycle (aerobic)
    • Electron transport chain (aerobic)

…….What is Aerobic? Anaerobic?........

  • Glucose is oxidized and O2 is reduced
  • Breakdown of one glucose results in 36 to 38 ATP molecules
overall equation for cellular respiration
Overall Equation for Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2

YIELDS

6CO2 + 6H20 + e- + 36-38ATP’s

what carries the electrons
What Carries the Electrons?
  • NAD+(nicotinadenine dinucleotide) acts as the energy carrier
  • NAD+ is a coenzyme
  • It’s Reduced to NADH when it picks up two electrons and one hydrogen ion
are there any other electron carriers
Are There Any Other Electron Carriers?
  • YES! Another Coenzyme!
  • FAD+(Flavin adenine dinucleotide)
  • Reduced to FADH2
what are the stages of cellular respiration
What are the Stages of Cellular Respiration?
  • Glycolysis
  • The Krebs Cycle aka Citric Acid Cycle
  • The Electron Transport Chain aka ETC
where does cellular respiration take place
Where Does Cellular Respiration Take Place?
  • It actually takes place in two parts of the cell:

Glycolysis occurs in the Cytoplasm

Krebs Cycle & ETC Takeplace in the Mitochondria

diagram of the process
Diagram of the Process

Occurs across Cristae

Occurs in Cytoplasm

Occurs in Matrix

glycolysis summary
Glycolysis Summary

*Takes place in the Cytoplasm

*Anaerobic (Doesn’t Use Oxygen)

*Requires input of 2 ATP

*Glucose split into two molecules of Pyruvate or Pyruvic Acid

*Also produces 2 NADH and 4 ATP Pyruvate is oxidized to Acetyl CoA and CO2 is removed

review of mitochondria structure
Review of Mitochondria Structure
  • Smooth outer Membrane
  • Folded inner membrane
  • Folds called Cristae
  • Space inside cristae called the Matrix
krebs cycle summary
Krebs Cycle Summary
  • Requires Oxygen (Aerobic)
  • Cyclical series of oxidation reactions that give off CO2 and produce one ATP per cycle
  • Turns twice per glucose molecule
  • Produces two ATP
  • Takes place in matrix of mitochondria
krebs cycle summary1
Krebs Cycle Summary
  • Each turn of the Krebs Cycle also produces 3NADH, 1FADH2, and 2CO2
  • Therefore, For each Glucose molecule, the Krebs Cycle produces 6NADH, 2FADH2, 4CO2, and 2ATP
krebs cycle
Krebs Cycle

ATP

NETS: 3NADH, 1ATP, 1FADH2, & 2CO2

electron transport chain summary
Electron Transport Chain Summary
  • 34 ATP Produced
  • H2O Produced
  • Occurs Across Inner Mitochondrial membrane
  • Uses coenzymes NAD+ and FAD+ to accept e- from glucose
  • NADH = 3 ATP’s
  • FADH2 = 2 ATP’s
electron transport chain
Electron Transport Chain
  • Differences between ETC in photosynthesis and cellular respiration???

FADH & NADH were byproducts of the kreb cycle/citric acid cycle

fermentation
Fermentation
  • Occurs when O2 NOT present (anaerobic)
  • Called Lactic Acid fermentation in muscle cells (makes muscles tired)
  • Called Alcoholic fermentation in yeast (produces ethanol)
  • Nets only 2 ATP
comparison of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Comparison of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Food broken down
  • Energy of glucose released
  • Carbon dioxide given off
  • Oxygen taken in
  • Produces CO2 and H2O
  • Goes on day and night
  • Occurs in all living cells
  • Photosynthesis
  • Food accumulated
  • Energy from sun stored in glucose
  • Carbon dioxide taken in
  • Oxygen given off
  • Produces glucose from PGAL
  • Goes on only in light
  • Occurs only in the presence of chlorophyll