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Artificial life. Based on Luc Steels (1995). Subject. Study : research and synthesis towards the artificial life domain Context : limits of system expert growth of computer power cognition approach. Start point.

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Artificial life

Artificial life

Based on Luc Steels (1995)


Subject
Subject

  • Study :

    • research and synthesis towards the artificial life domain

  • Context :

    • limits of system expert

    • growth of computer power

    • cognition approach


Start point
Start point

  • Scientific article :« The Homo Cyber Sapiens, the Robot Homonidus Intelligens, and the ‘artificial life’ approach to artificial intelligence »

    Luc Steels (1995)


Luc steels
Luc Steels

  • Specialized in the domain of artificial intelligence and artificial life applied to robot architectures and to the study of language

Fig 1.Luc Steels


Luc steels background
Luc Steels’ background

  • Studied computer science at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology – USA)

  • Director of Sony Computer Science Laboratory in Paris

  • Professor computer science at the University of Brussels

  • Founded the VUB AI Laboratory (1983)

  • Reviewer at CNRS


Once upon a time

Bionic man

?

Intelligentsystems

Artificial life

Once upon a time…

evolution

Homo Erectus

Homo Sapiens

Us

After us ?


Axes of discussion
Axes of discussion

  • Bionic man or Homo cyber sapiens

  • Intelligent systems or Robot Homonidus Intelligens

  • Artificial life


Artificial life1

Artificial Life

Bionic man

or Homo Cyber Sapiens


Homo cyber sapiens
Homo Cyber Sapiens

  • Intelligence evolving towards greater :

    • sophistication

    • power

  • Homo Cyber Sapiens↔technological extensions of the human brain.


Homo cyber sapiens1
Homo Cyber Sapiens

  • Artificial brain extensions should mimic the operation of human neurophysiology.

    • Neural modeling is implemented in chips

  • Artificial brain may be completely different from natural brain.

    • The build of bridges will establish data communication and processing.


History
History

  • Brief History of Homo Cyber Sapiens/Post Humans.

    • Mary Shelley : Frankenstein (1831)

    • K.Eric Drexler (1980-1990) : Nanotechnology


Evolution of super computer
Evolution of Super Computer

  • Brain versus Super Computers

    • Ian Pearson, Chris Winter & Peter Cochrane (1995)

Fig.1Projection of supercomputer speed


Use case
Use Case

  • Two Examples :


Artificial life2

Artificial Life

Intelligent Systems

or Robot Homonidus Intelligens


Intelligent systems
Intelligent systems

  • Cybernetic and Artificial Intelligence : already 50 years of experiment

  • Many advantages for computer science

  • A whole range of programs exhibit features of human intelligence

  • But …


Limits of intelligent systems
Limits of Intelligent systems

  • Steels : 3strong limits of Intelligent systems

    • a ‘frozen intelligence’ and not an intelligent behavior

    • intelligence needs to be embodied

    • consciousness


First limit frozen intelligence
First limit : frozen intelligence

  • Expensive cost of construction

  • Ephemeral validity

  • Outdated by changes

  • Expensive and unrealistic maintenance

    Something more than knowledge needed to be intelligent


Second limit lack of embodiment
Second limit : lack of embodiment

  • Knowledge systems :

    • disembodied intelligence

    • no direct link to the real world

  • Intelligent behavior emerges from interactions

  • Difficulties :

    • link between the real world and the system symbols

    • adaptation to unforeseen actions


Third limit consciousness
Third limit : consciousness

  • An intelligent system needs a sense of self and a conscience

    • Possible ?

    • Existence of a true autonomous agent ?


State of research in 1995
State of research in 1995

  • No technological obstacle

  • The real obstacle :the lack of a theory of intelligence


State of research in 2005 1 2

Fig 1. A robot soccer team by Nikos Vlassis (Amsterdam)

State of research in 2005 (1/2)

  • Knowledge systems : example of ‘frozen intelligence’

  • Case Based Reasoning use the last experience

  • Multi-agent systems :

    • agents

    • environment

    • interactions


State of research in 2005 2 2
State of research in 2005 (2/2)

  • McCarthy (1995-2002) :

    • consciousness does not yet exist in intelligent system

Intelligent systems

emotions

consciousness

sub consciousness

introspection


Artificial life3

Artificial Life

The Artificial life approach :

Theoretical approach


Historic 1 2

2005

Christopher Langton

1987

first scientific conference devoted to A-life

Connectionism

1980

parallel, distributed processing, neural networksAI ↔ cognitive science

1970

John Conway

game of life : simple system →complex self-organized structures

Alan Turing

1948

“ ‘Intelligent machinery’ , It’s the birth of the concept of intelligent machines.”

cellular automat

John Von Neumann

1940

Historic (1/2)


Historic 2 2
Historic (2/2)

  • Game of life : illustration

Fig 1. Random start

Fig 2. Stable state


Definitions of a life 1 2
Definitions of A-life (1/2)

  • Langton (1989) :

    • Artificial life (A-life) : study of ‘natural’ life by attempting to recreate biological phenomena from scratch within computers and other ‘artificial’ media.

  • Rennard (2002) :

    • Life : state of what is not inert.

    • Artificial life : field of research witch intend to specify the preceding definition.


Definitions of a life 2 2
Definitions of A-life (2/2)

  • Doyne Farmer and d'A.Belin (1992) : A-Life as field of alive

    • An artificial life must :

      • be initiated by man

      • be autonomous

      • be in interaction with its environment

      • induce the emergence of behaviors

    • Optional :

      • capacity to reproduce

      • capacities of adaptation


Steels vision of a life
Steels’ vision of A-life

  • Dynamic system theory applied to Artificial Intelligence

  • A-life →Unified theory of cognition

  • Unified theory : explain the details of all mechanisms of all problems within some domain.

    • unified theory of cognition domain’s ↔all cognitive behavior of humans.

    • experimental psychology could support such theories. (Newell 1990)


Steels research path
Steels’ research path

  • Two kinds of behavior expected :

    • differentiation : individual agent get specific task

    • recognition : make the difference between the member of the group and those which don’t.recognition →emergence of language.


Axes of research 1 2
Axes of research (1/2)

  • Emergence of language (Steels & Kaplan)

    • Emergence of common sense

    • Adaptation to other agents


Axes of research 2 2
Axes of research (2/2)

  • Autonomous robotic (Floreano)

    • Genetic algorithms with neural networks

    • Co-evolution

  • Animat Approach (Meyer)

    • Synthesizing animal intelligence

    • Situated and incarnate cognition


Artificial life4

Artificial Life

The Artificial life approach :

Experimental approach


Steels experimentation 1995 1 4
Steels’ experimentation – 1995 (1/4)

  • A complete artificial ecosystem

  • An environment with different pressures for the robots

  • Robots are required to do some work which is paid in energy

  • Cooperation and competition with each other

  • Behavior systems


Steels experimentation 1995 2 4
Steels’ experimentation – 1995 (2/4)

Fig 1. The ecosystem with the charging station, a robot vehicle, and a competitor

Fig 2.A robot vehicle


Steels experimentation 1995 3 4
Steels’ experimentation – 1995 (3/4)

Behavior system

  • Finding resources

  • Exploring

Environment Perception

- Visual Perception Modules

Charging station, Competitors, Other robots

- Sensors

Light, Tactile

  • Obstacle avoidance

  • - Align on charging station

  • Align on competitors

- Turn left/right, Forward, Retract, Stop

- Motors


Steels experimentation 1995 4 4
Steels’ experimentation – 1995 (4/4)

  • Interesting results :

    • Behavior diversification

      • Hard working gourp

      • Lazy group

    • Steels : something could emerge from the lazy group


Steel s experimentation 2001 1 3
Steel’s experimentation – 2001 (1/3)

  • One speaker (S), one hearer (H)

  • H tries to guess what S is talking about

  • H guess wrong : correction (feedback)

  • No explicit object designation : simple region pointing


Steel s experimentation 2001 2 3
Steel’s experimentation – 2001 (2/3)

Fig 3. The talking heads experiment


Steel s experimentation 2001 3 3
Steel’s experimentation – 2001 (3/3)

  • Interesting results :

    • Emergence of a shared word

    • Winner-take-all

    • Shared word repertoires after experiment


Other kind of experimentation 1 2
Other kind of experimentation (1/2)

Floreano & al. (2004)

  • Evolution of Spiking Neural Networks in robots

  • Objective : Vision-based navigation and wall avoidance

Fig 4. A Khepera robot in a square arena

Fig 5.A Khepera robot


Other kind of experimentation 2 2
Other kind of experimentation (2/2)

  • Interesting results :

    • Avoiding walls following with security distance

    • Biologically plausible connection patterns

    • Forward progression

    • Self adaptable speed : body adaptation


Artificial life5

Artificial Life

Conclusion


Conclusion 1 3
Conclusion (1/3)

  • 3 approaches

    • Bionic man : ethic problems

    • Intelligent systems : limits

    • Artificial life :

      • Tremendous possibilities

      • Involving many fields, biologically-inspired

      • Now a days the biological approach stay in progress.


Conclusion 2 3
Conclusion (2/3)

  • Lack of intelligence theory

  • Problem of consciousness in robots

  • Is language needed for intelligence ?

  • Sufficient pressures for a new species ?

  • Does performance gain means Intelligence gain ?


Conclusion 3 3
Conclusion (3/3)

“Intelligence is like life or cosmos; its such a deep

phenomenon that we will still be trying to understand it

many centuries from now.”

Luc Steels


Homo cyber sapiens2
Homo Cyber Sapiens

  • The Anatomical changes are defined by :

Homo erectus

New sensory modalities.

Homo Sapiens “wise man"

  • The Extreme ecological pressures are defined by:

Homo erectus

Homo Sapiens “wise man"


Homo cyber sapiens3
Homo Cyber Sapiens

  • The human species is today under just as much stress as it must have been in the past,Still Human Intelligence haven’t evolved !

  • How realistic is the development of a Homo Cyber Sapiens?