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Perry C. Hanavan, Au.D. Audiologist Civic Choir Parody. If a tree falls in the forest, and no one hears it, will there be a sound?. If a tree falls in the forest, and no one hears it, will there be a sound?.

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perry c hanavan au d audiologist civic choir parody
Perry C. Hanavan, Au.D.

Audiologist

Civic Choir

Parody

if a tree falls in the forest and no one hears it will there be a sound3
If a tree falls in the forest, and no one hears it, will there be a sound?...

This is an old philosophical dilemma which relies on using the word "sound" for two different purposes. One use is as a description of a particular type of physical disturbance:

"Sound is an organized movement of molecules caused by a vibrating body in some medium - water, gas, solid or whatever."

The other is as a description of a sensation:

"Sound is the auditory sensation produced through the ear by the alteration ... in pressure, particle displacement, or particle velocity which is propagated in an elastic medium."

Both definitions are correct, they differ only in the first being a cause and the second being an effect.

nasty noises
Nasty Noises
  • Nasty noises: Why do we recoil at unpleasant sounds?
  • MOST UNPLEASANT SOUNDSRating 74 sounds, people found the most unpleasant noises to be:1. Knife on a bottle2. Fork on a glass3. Chalk on a blackboard  4. Ruler on a bottle5. Nails on a blackboard6. Female scream7. Anglegrinder8. Brakes on a cycle squealing9. Baby crying10. Electric drill
  • LEAST UNPLEASANT SOUNDS1. Applause2. Baby laughing3. Thunder4. Water flowing
sound
Sound
  • vibration (movement)
  • variation in sound pressure
  • transmission through a medium (gas, liquid, solid)
  • perceived by listener
measurement pressure
Measurement: Pressure
  • Dynes dyne/cm2
  • Pounds per square inch psi
  • microbar bar
  • Pascal Pa
  • centimeters of water cm H2O
  • millimeters of mercury mm Hg
old vs new units of measure
Old vs. New Units of Measure

Old New

-------------------------------------------

dynes/cm2 Pascal

psi microbar

metric system
Metric System
  • MKS
  • cgs
  • http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/cgsmks.html
  • http://www.bipm.org/en/home/
  • Metric System Rap
pressure at different locations may vary
Pressure at different locations may vary
  • P atmos
  • P pos
  • P neg
  • P oral
  • P trach
  • P alveolar
air gas
Air (gas)
  • consists of molecules
  • Brownian motion
  • governed by predictable laws
  • equal dispersion throughout area
air movement
Air Movement
  • driving pressure: (difference in pressure) high pressure FLOWS to low pressure and low pressure FLOWS to high pressure areas
  • volume velocity: rate of flow
  • laminar flow: flow in a parallel manner
  • turbulent flow: non-parallel manner (flows around an object)
question
Question

Boyle’s Law deals with?

  • Gravity
  • Force
  • Pressure changes with volume
  • Temperature
  • I don’t know
air pressure volume density
Air Pressure, Volume, Density
  • Volume: amount of space in three dimensions
  • Density: amount of mass per unit of volume
  • Boyle’s laws: as volume decreases, pressure increases
question16
Question

A condensation is?

  • Positive air pressure area
  • Negative air pressure area
  • Less molecules than other areas
  • “Rain Drops Keep Falling on My Head”
  • Speaking down to people
air pressure changes from sound
Air Pressure Changes from Sound
  • Condensation
  • Rarefaction

Soundry

Sound wave applet

Amplitude

Peak amplitude

Wavelength

Period

propagation of sound
Propagation of Sound
  • Condensations
  • Rarefactions
    • Example of molecular motion
    • Components of sinusoid
    • Parts of a wave
    • Transverse wave simulation
    • Applet: Square, triangle, simulation
    • Various Sound applets
forces of sound
Forces of Sound
  • Inertia – body in motion
  • Elasticity – restoring force

Newton’s Cradle

hooke s law
Hooke’s Law
  • Law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion withthe load applied to it.
  • Many materials obey this law as long as load does not exceed material's elastic limit called "Hookean" materials
  • Hookean materials: broad term including mechanics of vocalis muscles.
  • Hooke's law in simple terms says that stress is directly proportional to strain.
  • Mathematically, Hooke's law states that: F= -kx
  • YouTube video of Hooke’s Law
  • YouTube video of vibrating vocalis muscles
components of sound wave
Components of Sound Wave
  • Amplitude
  • Frequency – number of cycles per second
  • Period – time to complete one cycle
  • Wavelength – distance traveled in one cycle

Pendulum Simulation

Sounds in Air Sims

examples
Examples
  • Piano Note
  • Timbre
  • Physics of Sound
  • The Missing Fundamental Effect
  • Pitch as a linear scale
  • Octave effect
  • Piano Octaves
  • Pitch as a helix
  • Pitch chroma circle
  • Shepard tone
  • Endless staircase - visual illusion
  • Endless staircase - Shepard illusion
  • Shepard discrete steps [wav] [mp3]
  • Risset continuous change [wav] [mp3]
interference
Interference
  • Interference
    • Constructive
    • Destructive
  • Fourier analysis
sound waves
Sound Waves
  • Simple
  • Complex Periodic
    • Fundamental
    • Harmonics
  • Complex Aperiodic
  • Aperiodic
waveforms and spectra
Waveforms and Spectra
  • Fourier Analysis of waveforms
psychoacoustics
Psychoacoustics
  • Intensity (dB) Loudness (phons)
  • Frequency (Hz) Pitch (mels)
  • Time Duration
resonance
Resonance
  • Natural frequency
  • Resonant frequency
  • Mechanical
  • Acoustic
resonate a wine goblet
Resonate a Wine Goblet
  • YouTube 1
  • YouTube (Mythbusters)
resonators as filters
Resonators as Filters
  • Bandwidth
    • Regularly shaped acoustic resonator
      • Narrowly tuned and lightly damped
    • Irregularly shaped acoustic resonator
      • Broadly tuned and heavily damped
    • Cutoff frequencies
    • Resonance curves
    • Center frequency
    • Types of filters
      • Low pass
      • High pass
      • Band pass
  • Low/High Pass Filter Example (on computer)
question38
Question

Is the human vocal tract:

  • A regularly shaped tube
  • An irregularly shaped tube
question39
Question

Which instrument would be more finely tuned?

  • Flute
  • Tuba
  • Saxophone
  • French horn
question41
Question

What do we consider the upper and lower cutoff frequency?

  • 6 dB down from center frequency
  • 3 dB down from center frequency
  • 5 dB down from center frequency
  • 9 dB down from center frequency
filters
Filters
  • Low pass filters (cut the high frequencies)
  • High pass filters (cut the low frequencies)
  • Band pass filters (cut high and low)
  • YouTube filters
bandpass filter
Bandpass Filter
  • Filter Simulation
bandpass earhooks
Bandpass/Earhooks
  • High and Low Pass Filters
question 600 900 1200 hz
Question600, 900, 1200 Hz

What is the missing fundamental in this example?

  • 30 Hz
  • 60 Hz
  • 100 Hz
  • 200 Hz
  • 300 Hz