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Furniture Construction and Selection Unit 5.02. Qualities of Hardwood Solid wood. Greater dimensional stability More durability Solid hard wood is used in high quality-upholstered furniture FRAMES. Harder Holds nails and screws better Less likely to dent Made of WHOLE pieces of wood.
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Qualities of Hardwood Solid wood • Greater dimensional stability • More durability • Solid hard wood is used in high quality-upholstered furniture FRAMES. • Harder • Holds nails and screws better • Less likely to dent • Made of WHOLE pieces of wood.
Hardwoods commonly used • Maple • Cherry • Pecan • Oak • Walnut
Qualities of Softwoods • Develops cracks • Not as strong as hardwood • Less expensive than hardwood
Softwoods commonly used • Cedar • Pine • Redwood • Cypress • The TRUNK size can influence the construction of the furniture. This patterns is formed as the tree grows • Wood grain- is formed as the tree grows.
Veneers • Definition • Thin slices of wood • It is a surface covered with thin sheets of wood (walnut) • Usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch). • Advantages of using veneers • Solid wood is too expensive • Solid wood is too heavy • Greater strength • Less cost
Pressed wood. • Pressed wood is any engineered wood (made from wood veneers, particles, or wood fibers) bonded together with an adhesive under heat and pressure • Made from wood shavings and other small pieces of wood. • Inexpensive furniture • Example: Plywood consists of three or more layers of veneer
Wood Joints How to join pieces of wood.
Furniture Joints • Important because they affect the life of the furniture, it’s durability, and it’s strength.
1- Mortise and Tenon A large range of mortise and tenon joints exist and the most simple of these is shown. The tenon is the part that fits into the mortise. A glue is applied before the joint is pushed together. Clamps are used to hold the joint firmly together, usually for twenty-four hours. Strong joints, used in well made chair.
2- Corner block • The best joint for securing the frame in upholstered furniture
3-Butt • Butt • For simple boxes, cases, cheap drawers, frames and chairs. • Very weak joint.
4-Miter • Miter- the joining pieces are cut at a 45-degree angle and joined to form a right angle. • Miters are used for decorative molding and for frames. • They are very weak .
5- Dovetail joints • The DOVETAIL JOINT is very strong because of the way the tails and pins are shaped. • This makes it difficult to pull the joint apart and virtually impossible when glue is added. • This type of joint is used in box constructions such as drawers, jewelry boxes, cabinets and other pieces of furniture where strength is required. • There are different types of dovetail joint and when cut accurately they are very impressive and attractive. • The corners are joined by interlacing notches of wood. • This joint is strong and is excellent when constructing quality drawers.
6- Tongue and Groove • Tongue and groove or T&G is a method of fitting similar objects together, edge to edge. • Tongue and groove joints allow two flat pieces to be joined strongly together to make a single flat surface.
Double Dowel Joints • Butt joint reinforced with dowels. • Dowel= small wooden pegs. • These joints are hidden and add strength to the joint. • Dowel holes are drill and glued and clamped together. • When small wooden pegs are glued into the holes of pieces of wood for reinforcement.
Parts of Upholstered Furniture • Frame • High quality upholstered furniture must have a FRAME composed of solid hard wood. • Should be dried hardwood • Joints should be strengthened • Cushioning materials • Springs in seat bases • Thick cushioning applied over springs and frame. • Foam, fiberfill, and down are used.
Support Springs in Mattresses • A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy. Springs are usually made out of spring steel • Change the springs when the seat of the chair sags. • Springs: part of the inner construction. The type and number determine the quality. • Coil springs: spiral shaped without padding and covering. Used in heavier furniture. Average chair has 9-12 springs per seat.
Support Springs in Mattresses • Box springs • Coils attached to a base covered with padding • Type of bed base typically consisting of a sturdy wooden frame covered in cloth, and containing springs • Coil springs: • Same as box, but not covered or padded. • It is the coil itself. • Number of coils? • Good quality has 300 or more • Flat springs: • Frame with flat springs
Metals in Furniture Construction • Aluminum • Iron • Steel • Used for: • Outdoor furniture • Modern furniture
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Metal Furnishings • Advantages: • Light or heavy • Inexpensive • Strong • Disadvantages: • Bends • Dents • Rusts and tarnishes
Plastic furniture • Advantages: • Imitates other materials • Light weight • Durable • Inexpensive • Easy to clean
Glass • Usually combined with metal or wood. • Good for tabletops and cabinet doors
Glass • For safety and durability the furniture that has glass should use Tempered glass.
Rattan ,Wicker and Bamboo • Rattan furniture-made from tough stems of different kinds of palm trees. • Rattan is made for casual rooms. • Wicker furniture- outdoor furniture. • Wicker furniture- lightweight and durable, and resistant to water. • Rattan is a specific material, but wicker is the general process of weaving rattan or other materials into finished goods.. • A rattan chair is definitely made from rattan, but a wicker chair may use other materials such as straw or bamboo slats around a rattan frame. • Bamboo furniture- from tall tropical grasses (bamboo)- casual room
Buying Furniture… • Check for: • Surface finish, back and inside finish • Solid construction • Sturdy base • Working parts • Drawers open smoothly
Buying Upholstered Furniture • Check for: • Zippers • Underlining • Spring quality • Comfort
Shopping for Furniture • Information and materials you should take with you when you shop for furniture: • Measurements: what size are door openings • Colors: Carpet, wallpaper, paint, fabric to match
Finishes • Include stains, sealers, waxes and paints that protect and improve the appearance of the wood surface • Water-based and oil-based stains bring out the natural beauty of woods • Sealers can be penetrating or on the surface of the wood
Finishes con’t • Plastic sealers resists moisture • Wax is used to preserve the wood and gives an attractive look • Paint is used to hide unattractive surfaces. Can also be used to enhance the look by being decorative