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Meat Cutting Day 2. Steroids and Hormones. Hormones are chemicals that are produced naturally in animals and plants (phytosterols). They control important body functions- growth, development and reproduction. In animals- makes them gain weight more quickly

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steroids and hormones
Steroids and Hormones
  • Hormones are chemicals that are produced naturally in animals and plants (phytosterols). They control important body functions- growth, development and reproduction.
  • In animals-
    • makes them gain weight more quickly
    • increases milk production
steroids and hormones1
Steroids and Hormones
  • Naturally occurring hormones-
    • estrogen, progesterone and testosterone.
  • Synthetics-
    • tenbolone acetate (testosterone)
    • zeranol (estrogenl)
    • Melengestral acetate (progesterone)
steroids and hormones2
Steroids and Hormones
  • In the EU, scientist have proven that the use of hormones in food does cause problems
  • Added hormones have been suspect to
    • increasing cancer
    • early onset of puberty in females
    • as well as increasing diabetes and hypothyroidism
steroids and hormones3
Steroids and Hormones
  • rBgh- recombinant bovine growth hormone
  • Stimulates lactation by 40% in dairy cows
  • Found to cause cancer by panel of Scientist in Canada.
radiation irradiated
Radiation / Irradiated
  • Soft X-rays
  • Gamma X-rays
  • Cathode rays
  • The cell is ionized,
    • alters the interior of the cell to the point that the bacteria can no longer recognize it and decreases the chances of bacterial growth.
dry and wet aging
Dry and Wet Aging
  • Dry aging
    • the traditional method for improving the flavor and texture of the meat.
    • utilizes the natural lactic acid present in the muscle at the time of death
    • to slowly denature the protein and enhance the characteristics of the meat.
dry aging
Dry aging
  • As the lacticacid digests the protein, it releases moisture, which needs to escape the meat to promote the dry aging process.
  • A considerable amount of liquid is released through this process, which greatly increases the value of the meat.
dry aging1
Dry Aging
  • Traditionally dry aging was done with full sides of beef.
    • French used a method called mortification. They would hang the animal by its gambrel cord until it naturally broke signifying that the meat had been properly aged.
    • Today, dry aging is reserved for the more expensive cuts of meat cut to primals.
wet aging or vacuum packaged aging
Wet Aging or Vacuum Packaged Aging
  • Developed to improve / increase the shelf life of meat for distribution
  • To decrease the amount of storage space used
    • they started to break the animal down from sides to primals
    • and aged in the cryovac bags
      • also known as MAP packaging, or Modified Atmospheric Packaging
the art and science of marinades
The Art and Science of Marinades
  • There are two basic styles, or methods of using marinades to tenderize meat and add flavor.
    • Acidic and Enzymatic.
  • Meat texture is composed of 2 types of toughness-
    • mechanical resistance of the myofibrillar structure
    • connective tissue content
enzymatic tenderization
Enzymatic Tenderization
  • Digestive enzymes are complex proteins involved in digestion that stimulate chemical changes in other substances. There are three classes of digestive enzymes:
enzymatic tenderization1
Enzymatic Tenderization
  • 1. Proteolytic enzymes- which digest protein
    • Bromelin- Pineapples
    • Papain- Papayas
    • Ficin- Figs
    • Actinidin- Kiwi
      • Must be fresh juice, not canned
  • 2. Lipases- that digest fat
  • 3. Amylases- which digest carbohydrates
acidic tenderization
Acidic Tenderization
  • Acids actually denature the protein,
    • change the protein structure to create a different means of organizing the protein strands.
acidic tenderization1
Acidic Tenderization
  • Acetic Acid- Vinegars or wine
  • Citric Acid- lemons, limes, oranges, grapefruit, kumquats, pomelos, etc.
  • Lactic Acid- Buttermilk, Yoghurt
    • Lactic acid marinating varies from other methods because it mimics the natural process of lactic acid similar to dry aging. The use of lactic acid has been done for hundreds of years and is less detrimental to the quality of the meat.