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Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts. Grades K – 3 Module #2. Goals for Module 2. Teachers will: Understand that students pass through phases of word learning, as d escribed in scientific research.

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goals for module 2
Goals for Module 2

Teachers will:

  • Understand thatstudents passthrough phases of word learning, as described inscientific research.
  • Understand the importance of phonics and phonemic awareness instruction.
  • Learn the 6 syllable types.
  • Prior to alphabetic understanding.
  • Not phonemically aware.
  • Makes associations between the most salient visual features.


  • May learn by meaning cues in context.

“It says walk!”


(Jack, age 3.5)

early alphabetic
Early Alphabetic
  • Has partial phonemic awareness.
  • Has some sound-letter, letter-sound correspondences.
  • May look at first letter and guess at word.
  • Easily confuses similarly spelled words.

works words world

  • Representation of first and last letters of a word is common in spelling.

Early Alphabetic
















later alphabetic
Later Alphabetic
  • Recognizes words by matching all phonemes and graphemes within the word.
  • Blends from left to right when encountering an unknown word (doesn’t guess).
  • Rapidly recognizes many whole words and learns new words easily.
  • Spelling is phonetically accurate; beginning to apply conventional letter patterns; sight word knowledge increasing.
consolidated alphabetic
Consolidated Alphabetic
  • Adding many more sight words to memory.
  • Larger units of words recognized in print; rimes, syllables, and morphemes are becoming more automatic.
  • Reads by analogy to known words.
  • Spelling improves with understanding of word knowledge and origin; morphemes, syntax, and ending rules are applied in the process.
application discuss
  • How can you use knowledge of the skills continuum to determine students’ needs?
  • Would students in your class be in more than one phase at one time?
  • How does the continuum inform our instruction?
  • Do you see this continuum reflected in the Common Core State Standards?
phonological awareness is the link to phonics
Phonological Awareness Is the Link to Phonics

When students understand the sound to letters (phoneme to grapheme) relationships that create written language – they learn to read and spell more quickly and accurately.

/p/ /l/ /ā/ /n/


who needs phonics and how do we know
Students who:

Are stymied or guess wildly when they approach unfamiliar words.

Cannot associate phonemes and graphemes with accuracy and fluency.

Have trouble blending sounds into words.

Spell poorly.

Score low on a test of reading nonsense syllables.

Score low on a test of reading real words.

Do you recognize any of these characteristics in your students?

Who Needs Phonics, and How Do We Know?
exploring the consonant phonemes of english
Exploring the Consonant Phonemes of English

What is a consonant?

  • It is a speech sound that is produced by a partial or complete obstruction of the air stream; the obstruction ‘closes’ the sound.
  • It can be voiced or unvoiced and is distinguished by other features.
features of phonemes
Features of Phonemes
  • Stop—Continuous (e.g., /k/ vs. /m/ and /ū/)
  • Voiced—Voiceless (e.g., /g/ vs. /k/)
  • Oral—Nasal (e.g., /k/ vs. /ng/)
what are vowels
Vowels are open, voiced sounds with no obstruction of the air flow by the teeth, lips, tongue, or jaw.

Spoken syllables must have one vowel.

Written syllables almost always have a vowel (exception –m inrhythm).

We teach 19 vowels, including three vowel-rcombinations.

What Are Vowels?
english vowel phonemes
English Vowel Phonemes


Sound Guide Word

/ē/ eagle

/ĭ/ itch

/ā/ apron

/ĕ/ etch

/ă/ apple

/ī/ idol

/ŏ/ octopus

/ŭ/ up

/aw/ audio

/ō/ over

Sound Guide Word

/oo/ book

/ū/ ooze, rude

/y+ū/ use, music

/oi/ oil, noise

/ou/ ouch, house

/er/ earth, her

/ar/ art, far

/or/ orbit, for

/ə/ about

phoneme blending k 1
Phoneme Blending K-1

Phoneme blending is the process of taking the segmented sounds in words and blending them back together to make a word.


/sh/ /oo/—What’s the word? (shoe)

/b/ /ŭ/ /s/—What’s the word? (bus)

The ability to blend speech sounds is necessary for reading.

phoneme segmenting k 1
Phoneme Segmenting K-1

Phoneme segmenting is the process of taking a word and separating it into its sounds.

Example: bus (stretch your fingers to segment) /b/ /ŭ/ /s/

The ability to segment speech sounds is necessary for spelling.

techniques for blending and segmenting syllables 1 3
Let’s practice recognizing syllables orally first.

Feel syllables with duck lips.

Use foam rectangles or index cards as the multi-sensory manipulative.

Pull a slinky apart as you say a word syllable by syllable.

Syllables are all about the vowels!!

Techniques for Blending and Segmenting Syllables 1-3
1 closed syllables
1. Closed Syllables

A closed syllable is a syllable with a single vowel letter that ends in one or more consonants. The consonant closes off the vowel sound, making it short.

It does not matter what comes before the vowel; it is only important to be aware of what comes after the vowel. If there is a consonant after the vowel in the same syllable and the consonant is not followed by “e,” then the vowel will be short.

p. 123

2 open syllables
2. Open Syllables

An open syllable is a syllable that ends in a long vowel sound spelled with a single vowel letter.

Open syllables can be single-syllable words or syllables that combine with other syllables to make longer words.

me – terso – lono – ble

p. 123


A vowel-consonant-e syllable includes a vowel immediately followed by one consonant and the silent letter “e” (VCe). The vowel sound is long.

Vowel-Consonant-e Syllables

p. 124

4 vowel r syllables
4. Vowel-r Syllables

A vowel-r syllable includes a vowel or vowels immediately followed by the letter “r” in the same syllable.

p. 126

5 vowel team syllables
5. Vowel Team Syllables

A vowel team syllable includes vowel sounds spelled with more than one letter. Sometimes, consonant letters are used in vowel teams.

p. 126-127

6 consonant le syllables c le
6. Consonant -le Syllables (C-le)

A consonant-le syllable has a consonant immediately followed by -le. It is always at the end of a word.









a sequence for syllable instruction
Closed syllables—simple and complex

Vowel-consonant-e (VCe, “magic” e, or silent e) syllables

Open syllables

Vowel team/diphthong syllables

Consonant -le (C-le final) syllables

Vowel-r controlled syllables

A Sequence for Syllable Instruction

By teaching students systematically in phonics concepts, we can ensure they are prepared for reading more advanced text fluently and with comprehension.

“There is no comprehension strategy powerful enough to compensate for the inability to read the words.” —Dr. Joseph Torgesen