Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts. Grades K – 3 Module #2. Goals for Module 2. Teachers will: Understand that students pass through phases of word learning, as d escribed in scientiﬁc research.
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Grades K – 3
“It says walk!”
(Jack, age 3.5)
works words world
When students understand the sound to letters (phoneme to grapheme) relationships that create written language – they learn to read and spell more quickly and accurately.
/p/ /l/ /ā/ /n/
Are stymied or guess wildly when they approach unfamiliar words.
Cannot associate phonemes and graphemes with accuracy and fluency.
Have trouble blending sounds into words.
Score low on a test of reading nonsense syllables.
Score low on a test of reading real words.
Do you recognize any of these characteristics in your students?Who Needs Phonics, and How Do We Know?
What is a consonant?
Spoken syllables must have one vowel.
Written syllables almost always have a vowel (exception –m inrhythm).
We teach 19 vowels, including three vowel-rcombinations.What Are Vowels?
Sound Guide Word
Sound Guide Word
/ū/ ooze, rude
/y+ū/ use, music
/oi/ oil, noise
/ou/ ouch, house
/er/ earth, her
/ar/ art, far
/or/ orbit, for
Phoneme blending is the process of taking the segmented sounds in words and blending them back together to make a word.
/sh/ /oo/—What’s the word? (shoe)
/b/ /ŭ/ /s/—What’s the word? (bus)
The ability to blend speech sounds is necessary for reading.
Phoneme segmenting is the process of taking a word and separating it into its sounds.
Example: bus (stretch your fingers to segment) /b/ /ŭ/ /s/
The ability to segment speech sounds is necessary for spelling.
Feel syllables with duck lips.
Use foam rectangles or index cards as the multi-sensory manipulative.
Pull a slinky apart as you say a word syllable by syllable.
Syllables are all about the vowels!!Techniques for Blending and Segmenting Syllables 1-3
A closed syllable is a syllable with a single vowel letter that ends in one or more consonants. The consonant closes off the vowel sound, making it short.
It does not matter what comes before the vowel; it is only important to be aware of what comes after the vowel. If there is a consonant after the vowel in the same syllable and the consonant is not followed by “e,” then the vowel will be short.
An open syllable is a syllable that ends in a long vowel sound spelled with a single vowel letter.
Open syllables can be single-syllable words or syllables that combine with other syllables to make longer words.
me – terso – lono – ble
A vowel-consonant-e syllable includes a vowel immediately followed by one consonant and the silent letter “e” (VCe). The vowel sound is long.
A vowel-r syllable includes a vowel or vowels immediately followed by the letter “r” in the same syllable.
A vowel team syllable includes vowel sounds spelled with more than one letter. Sometimes, consonant letters are used in vowel teams.
A consonant-le syllable has a consonant immediately followed by -le. It is always at the end of a word.
By teaching students systematically in phonics concepts, we can ensure they are prepared for reading more advanced text fluently and with comprehension.
“There is no comprehension strategy powerful enough to compensate for the inability to read the words.” —Dr. Joseph Torgesen