The Rise of Mass Politics, 1820-1840 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Rise of Mass Politics, 1820-1840
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The Rise of Mass Politics, 1820-1840

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  1. The Rise of Mass Politics, 1820-1840 APUSH – Mr. Hesen

  2. The “New Democracy” • 1820s-1840s • Politicians made an effort to appeal to common man • Most politicians were wealthy • Change in emphasis: • Jeffersonian – Govt. for the people • Jacksonian – Govt. should be done directly by the people

  3. The “New Democracy” • Based on universal male suffrage • No more property qualifications • No African American males • New voters demanded politicians that looked out for common interests

  4. The “New Democracy” • Rise of workingmen’s parties • Laborers in the East • Working demands – 10-hour day, etc. • Violent groups (esp. during depressions) • Locos Focos – NY Democrats – demanded worker rights

  5. Election of 1824: “The Corrupt Bargain” • AKA “The Corrupt Bargain” • Candidates: • All “Democratic-Republicans” • Andrew Jackson • John Quincy Adams • William Crawford • Henry Clay

  6. Election of 1824 • Jackson – most popular votes – didn’t have the electoral vote • 12th Amendment – HoR must choose from top three finishers • Clay (Speaker of the House) was in charge of selection process • Chose John Quincy Adams – hated Jackson

  7. Tariff of Abominations • Biggest issue of JQA’s presidency • Congress increased tariffs from 23% to 37% • Most New Englanders approved the tariff • West and South opposed tariff • John C. Calhoun’s “The South Carolina Exposition”

  8. Election of 1828 • Support came from West, South, and East Coast laborers • Most support came from political machines in NY and PA • “Revolution of 1828” – peaceful, but showed changes • Shifting from New England to West

  9. Andrew Jackson “Old Hickory” • Personified the new West • Govt. needed to be for the common folk • Hated Clay’s “American System” • Like Jefferson’s ideas • STRONG PRESIDENCY – “King Andrew I”

  10. Jacksonian Democracy Spoils System • Rewarded political supporters with public offices • Allows any number of people to hold office • National political machine was built around Jackson

  11. “Kitchen Cabinet” • Jackson’s unofficial group of advisors • Did not answer to Congress – no checks and balances • Congress snubbed Jackson • “KC” was unconstitutional – not really

  12. Webster-Hayne Debate • Cause: NE senator introduced a bill to stop the sale of public lands • Western and southern senators opposed • New England was by itself • Webster-Hayne Debate lasted nine days (January 1830)

  13. Senator Robert Y. Hayne • From South Carolina – Calhoun protégé • States rights • Accused NE of disloyalty • Proclaimed that nullification was the only means of protecting Southern rights

  14. Daniel Webster • Spoke out for NE • Insisted that people not states framed Constitution • Assailed nullification • “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable”

  15. Peggy Eaton Affair • Wife of Sec. of War – John Eaton • Snubbed by Jackson’s cabinet members • Purged Calhoun’s allies from Cabinet • Calhoun resigns in 1832 • Tariff controversy weighed hard on the relationship • Became a FIERCE sectionalist

  16. Nullification Controversy (1832) • South Carolina still fuming over ToA • Tariff of 1832 • Jackson lowered the tariff to appeal to South • Lowered only 10% - NOT EVEN CLOSE ENOUGH • SC – nullified the Tariff – threatened to secede from Union • Henry Clay – Tariff of 1833 (Compromise…AGAIN)! • Favored by South • Force Bill (1833) – President could use military force to collect tariffs

  17. Election of 1832 • Henry Clay (National Republican) vs. Andrew Jackson (Democrat) • Clay ran on his “American System” – Jackson killed the BUS • Jackson beats Clay (219-49) • Jackson had mass support from voters

  18. Significance of Election of 1832 • Appearance of first 3rd Party System: Anti-Masonic Party • Opposed the Masonic Order – George Washington and Ben Franklin • Accused secrecy in government – attracted evangelical groups (religion) • National nominating conventions were organized by all three parties

  19. Jacksonian Democracy Economics and States’ Rights • Main aim: Divorce government form economy – Laissez faire economics • End of the BUS • Vetoes charter in 1832 • “Pet Bank” scheme – transferred federal money to 23 state “pet banks” - kills 2nd BUS • Specie Circular – public land now had to be purchased with hard currency

  20. Indian Removal Indian Removal Act (1830) • Jackson proposed the removal of Indians from South (Five Nations: Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminoles) • More than 100,000 Indians were forcibly uprooted and moved in 1830s – Bureau of Indian Affairs • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1832) • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)

  21. Trail of Tears • 1838 – 18,000 Cherokees force marched to Oklahoma • 4,000 died as a result – malnutrition, exposure, cholera, and treatment • 25% Choctaws perished • Black Hawk War – 1832 – Illinois and Wisconsin natives refused land removal west of Great Lakes • Crushed by U.S. troops – opened up Lake Michigan to settlement

  22. Panic of 1837 • Causes: • OVERSPECULATION…..AGAIN!!!! • Speculated to build canals, roads, and spread slavery • Jackson’s presidency hurt economy • British banks failed and called in foreign loans • Results: • American banks collapsed • Prices fell sharply • Factories closed; unemployment soared • Van Buren chose to stay out of the Panic – limited government

  23. Treasury Bill of 1840 (Divorce Bill) • Wanted to divorce government from banks • Felt federal funds given to private banks fueled Panic of 1837 • Independent Treasury System • Govt. placed surplus funds in banks in larger cities • Condemned by Whigs

  24. Election of 1840 • William Henry Harrison (“Tippacanoe and Tyler Too!!!/Log Cabin and Hard Cider) • Martin Van Buren renominated by Dems • Van Buren was blamed for the Panic • Harrison pummels Van Buren (234-60) • Significance • First mass turnout election in history • Propaganda and slogans set example for future • Liberty Party – third party in election