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AccessMonkey. A scripting framework for improving web accessibility Jeremy Brudvik Jessica Leung. Web Accessibility. Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can use the Web [1] Making sites efficiently usable for people with disabilities.

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accessmonkey

AccessMonkey

A scripting framework for improving web accessibility

Jeremy Brudvik

Jessica Leung

web accessibility
Web Accessibility
  • Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can use the Web[1]
  • Making sites efficiently usable for people with disabilities.
  • We are primarily concerned with web accessibility for blind people.

[1] http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/accessibility.php “Web Accessibility Initiative”

blind people and computers
Blind people and computers
  • “Blind” isn’t defined equivalently in all contexts
    • We focus on people who use screen readers
  • Output
    • Screen readers
      • Converts visual information to linear display
      • Voiced visual content
      • Refreshable Braille displays
  • Input
    • Keyboard
    • (Virtually) No mouse
web accessibility problems
Web Accessibility Problems
  • Images
  • Layout
    • Tables
  • Dynamic content
  • Mixing content and visual presentation
  • Poorly-named links
  • Flash, other multimedia
why should people care
Why should people care?
  • Laws
    • Section 508 of the U.S. Rehabilitation Act
  • Lawsuits
    • NFB v. Target (2006)
    • Maguire v. SOCOG (1999)
  • Accessible websites have other benefits
    • Likely easier for sighted users to navigate
    • Search engines
  • In United States, 1.3 million legally blind people, and approx. 10 million visually impaired people [2]

[2] http://www.afb.org/Section.asp?SectionID=15 American Foundation for the Blind: Blindness Statistics

why aren t sites accessible
Why aren’t sites accessible?
  • People make uninformed decisions
    • Many developers don't think about blind people
    • Old technologies are still used, despite advances
  • Web design tools don’t always produce accessible content
  • Easy to incorporate accessibility from the beginning, difficult to redesign existing site
  • Browser compliance
outline
Outline
  • Accessmonkey
  • Evaluation of Website Accessibility
  • NFB Youth Slam
outline1
Outline
  • Accessmonkey
  • Evaluation of Website Accessibility
  • NFB Youth Slam
what are we doing
What are we doing?
  • Accessmonkey: A scripting framework for improving web accessibility
accessmonkey1
Accessmonkey
  • Inspired by Greasemonkey
    • Greasemonkey allows users to modify web pages
  • Accessmonkey
    • Users modify pages without coding
    • Users share their improvements
    • Developers save users’ modifications

Accessmonkey

accessmonkey issues
Accessmonkey: Issues
  • Security
    • Restrict the power of most user-submitted scripts
    • Allow unrestricted scripts after peer review
  • Deployment

User Base

Scripts

    • Multi-platform
      • Firefox
      • Internet Explorer
  • UI design
accessmonkey progress
Accessmonkey: Progress
  • Met with blind people to discuss issues
  • Created suggestion form for website improvements
  • Specific page scripts
    • Association of Yale Alumni (AYA)
    • MyUW
    • Amazon
  • General scripts
    • Assign alt texts
    • Label headers
slide21

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Modified

AYA - Images Enabled

slide22

Original

Modified

AYA - Images Disabled

slide23

Original

Modified

MyUW - Styles Enabled

slide24

Original

Modified

MyUW - Styles Disabled

slide25

Original

Modified

MyUW - Styles Disabled

slide26

Original

Modified

MyUW - Styles Disabled

outline2
Outline
  • Accessmonkey
  • Evaluation of Website Accessibility
  • NFB Youth Slam
evaluation of accessibility
Evaluation of Accessibility
  • Existing Tools
  • Accessibility difficult to measure
    • Subjective and not quantifiable
    • Difficult to suggest specific improvements
  • What we can do is look at alt (alternative) text
    • General indicator of how the site is doing overall
    • Very specific and simple to implement
outline3
Outline
  • Accessmonkey
  • Evaluation of Website Accessibility
  • NFB Youth Slam
nfb youth slam
NFB Youth Slam
  • (National Federation of the Blind)
  • 1-week camp for blind high school students in Baltimore, MD
  • Taught students how to program instant messenger chatbots

[3] www.blindscience.org/ncbys/Youth_Slam.asp

nfb youth slam1
NFB Youth Slam

In the Lab

Team

Exhibit Hall

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • SURP
  • NASA Space Grant
  • Professor Richard Ladner
  • Jeffrey Bigham
  • Maxwell Aller
web studies all images
Web Studies: All Images !=
  • Significant images need alternative text
    • alt HTML attribute
  • Insignificant images need empty alt text
    • Decorative or structural

<img src=“graph.gif”

alt=“annual growth: 1982 to 2004”>

<img src=“images/spacer.gif”>

<img src=“images/spacer.gif” alt=“”>

prioritization of problems
Prioritization of Problems
  • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0
    • Identifies accessibility checkpoints for web developers
    • Separates checkpoints into 3 priorities
      • Priority 1 must be implemented, otherwise inaccessible
      • Priorities 2 and 3 are important for efficiency