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第 22 讲. -ED 分词. 22.1 –ed 分词作前置修饰语. 1. 来自及物动词的 -ed 分词作前置修饰语: 来自及物动词的 -ed 分词作前置修饰语通常由被动意义和完成意义: Eg. frozen food, a board traveler, a lost cause, a conquered army, a finished article, the spoken word, a recorded talk, a closed shop, written language. 2. 来自不及物动词的 -ed 分词作前置修饰语:

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第22讲

-ED分词

22 1 ed
22.1 –ed分词作前置修饰语
  • 1. 来自及物动词的-ed分词作前置修饰语:
  • 来自及物动词的-ed分词作前置修饰语通常由被动意义和完成意义:
  • Eg. frozen food, a board traveler, a lost cause, a conquered army, a finished article, the spoken word, a recorded talk, a closed shop, written language.
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2. 来自不及物动词的-ed分词作前置修饰语:
  • 来自不及物动词的-ed分词很少能单独用作前置修饰语,这种用法的仅限于下面几个词,仅表示完成意义,不表示被动意义。
  • Eg. a retired worker, an escaped prisoner, a faded flower, fallen leaves, an expired lease, the risen sun, a returned student, the vanished treasure, a grown man
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2. 能带-ed分词作宾语补语的动词分类:
  • 第一类包括:see, hear, feel, find, think等表示感觉和心理状态的动词。
  • 第二类包括:make, get, have, keep等表示致使意义的动词。
  • 第三类包括:like, want, wish, order 等表示希望、要求、命令的意义的动词。
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22.3 关于“悬垂分词”
  • “悬垂分词” (dangling participle),又叫“无依着分词”(unattached participle),指-ing分词或-ed分词结构在句中找不到它的逻辑主语,因而处于一种“悬垂”状态,即“无依着”状态。
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1. “依着法则”和“悬垂分词”:
  • 当-ing分词或-ed分词结构在句中起关系分句或状语分句作用时,它们都有逻辑主语,这种逻辑主语有时就是主句的主语。
  • Eg. Sitting at the back as we are, we can’t hear a word.
  • Jolted by the collision, Harry suffered a sprained back and a broken knee.
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2. 关于“悬垂分词”的可接受性问题。
  • 科技语体中, “悬垂分词”以及无依着的不定式结构用得较多,如:Using the electric energy, it is necessary to change its form.
  • To determine the number of cells, a sample is put under a microscope.
  • 但有些“悬垂分词”结构,在理解上会引起歧义或在表以上会引起混乱,这种“悬垂分词”结构是不可接受的。
  • Eg. Opening the cupboard, a skeleton fell out. (wrong)
  • Grilled on charcoal, we liked the fish much better. (wrong)