applying particle swarm optimization to transmit video over wireless zigbee network
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Applying Particle Swarm Optimization to transmit video over wireless ZigBee network. Intelligent Systems Research Centre Seminar Dr. Iman Samizadeh, December 11 th, 2013 - School of Computing. Content. Problem ZigBee – IEEE 802.15.4 MPEG Swarm Intelligence /Particle Swarm Optimization

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applying particle swarm optimization to transmit video over wireless zigbee network

Applying Particle Swarm Optimization to transmit video over wireless ZigBee network

Intelligent Systems Research Centre Seminar

Dr. Iman Samizadeh, December 11th, 2013 - School of Computing

  • Problem
  • ZigBee – IEEE 802.15.4
  • MPEG
  • Swarm Intelligence/Particle Swarm Optimization
  • Methodology
  • Results
  • Conclusion

Transmitting video over IEEE 802.15.4

overview of zigbee
Overview of ZigBee
  • Low power consumption
  • Low cost
  • Intended for WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network)
  • Data rates of 250 kb/s, 40 kb/s and 20 kb/s.
  • Frequency Bands of 2.4GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM*), 915MHz and European 868MHz band.
  • Supporting Star or Peer-to-Peer network.
  • Support for low latency devices.
zigbee applications
ZigBee Applications
  • Smart-home networking
  • Automotive and industrial networks
  • Interactive toys
  • Remote metering/utility meter readers
  • Sensor networks
zigbee network topologies
ZigBee Network Topologies


  • Cluster Tree


zigbee vs other wireless technologies
ZigBee VS Other Wireless Technologies

Y – Power consumption

X – Bandwidth

zigbee vs bluetooth
ZigBee VS Bluetooth

ZigBee: based on IEEE 802.15.4 (WPAN)

ZigBee: 250 kbit/s

ZigBee: 30 milliseconds

ZigBee: 4-32 Kbyte

ZigBee: batteries will last for up to 10 years

ZigBee: $2

  • StandardBluetooth: based on IEEE 802.15.1 (WPAN)
  • Maximum network speed:Bluetooth: 1 Mbit/s
  • Typical network join timeBluetooth: 3 seconds
  • Protocol stack sizeBluetooth: 250 Kbyte
  • BatteryBluetooth: Intended for frequent recharging
  • Price per chipBluetooth: $30
picture expert group mpeg
Picture Expert Group (MPEG)
  • MPEG-1(Good for storage on digital media such as video CDs), MPEG-2 (DVD), MPEG-3 (HDTV) and MPEG-4 (offers transparent information)
conventional methods
Conventional Methods:
  • Constant bit-rate (CBR) - method guarantees traffic at a constant rate and is commonly used in typical voice, video and audio, which require more bandwidth
  • Variable bit-rate (VBR ) - method is for the applications that require buffering. VBR is typically used to support compressed voice and video
mpeg group of pictures
MPEG Group Of Pictures

Short GOP (DVD): I-B-B-B-B-P-B-B-B-B-I-B-B-B-B-P-B-B-B-B-I

Long GOP (MPEG-4): I-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-P-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-I-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-P-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-I

  • Adaptive Rate Control over IEEE 802.15.4 using Particle Swarm Optimization
adaptive systems
Adaptive Systems
  • Swarm intelligence
  • Cities
  • The brain
  • The immune system
  • Ecosystems
  • Computer models
swarm intelligence si
Swarm Intelligence (SI)

Origins: How can birds or fish exhibit such a coordinated collective behaviour?

  • It is an artificial intelligence technique based around the study of collective behaviour in decentralized, self-organized systems.
  • It is made up of a population of simple agents interacting locally with one another and with their environment.
Normally no centralized control structure dictating how individual agents should behave, local interactions between such agents often lead to the emergence of global behaviour. i.e. in ant colonies, birdflocking, bacteria modelling and fish schooling
particle swarm optimization pso
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

Invented by James Kennedy and Russell Eberhart in 1995

They have included the ‘roost’ in SI, so that:

  • Each agent was attracted towards the location of the roost.
  • Each agent remembered where it was closer to the roost.
  • Each agent shared information with its neighbours about its closest location to the roost while learning from their own experience.
  • Each agent as the population members gradually move into betterregions of the problem space.

James and Russell suggested that the velocities and accelerations of swarm are more appropriately applied to particles.

pso applications
PSO Applications

PSO can be tailor-designed to deal with specific real-world problems. For example problems with continuous, discrete, or mixed search space, with multiple local minima.

• Computer numerically controlled milling optimization

• Battery pack state-of-charge estimation

• Real-time training of neural networks

  • Moving Peaks (multiple peaks dynamic environment)
  • Oil industry
  • A process of representing a large -possibly infinite – set of values with a much smaller set
  • Oneof the simplest and most general idea in lossy compression
q scale
  • This is the Quantization scale value
  • MPEG’s Q-scale values has a significant affect on amount of compression.
  • The Q-scale values in MPEG-4 can be set for I, P, and B-frames separately.
  • The scale can be from 1 to 31, (Larger numbers will result in better compression but at the expense of worse quality).
  • Increasing the Q-scale affected the amount of compression the most.
  • The computer simulation results confirm that use of Particle Swarm Optimization to develop an adaptive rate control, improves the quality of picture whilst reducing data loss and communication delay, when compared to conventional MPEG video transmissions. Also, achieve an optimum level of quality of picture whilst maintaining the ZigBee target bitrate, increases the available bandwidth and reducing the data loss.
  • IEEE Computer Society, (August 31, 2007). IEEE Standard 802.15.4a (2007)
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