Ethnic groups at WWII. Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3. Importance. World War I and World War II brought about changes for minorities and women because these conflicts led to the creation of new job opportunities
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Ethnic groups at WWII Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3
Importance • World War I and World War II brought about changes for minorities and women because these conflicts led to • the creation of new job opportunities • the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment • a greater number of high-level management positions • greater integration in housing and schools throughout the nation
442nd Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3
442nd Infantry Combat Group • Made up of Japanese Americans Nisei • Many had families that were interned • Mainly fought in Europe • Most decorated battalion in WWII • Average height was 5’4”
The 442nd helped liberate the “Lost Battalion” in Germany. They saved more than a hundred Americans at a cost of 120 killed and 680 wounded of their own unit.
Italy Fort Benning, Ga
U.S. Senator (Hawaii) Daniel Inouye, a member of the 442nd. Bravely led his men. Grenade injury led to amputation of his arm.
Tuskegee Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3
The Tuskegee Airmen • The first black pilots • Impressive fighting record • Helped lessen the racism directed towards African-Americans
The Tuskegee Airmen • They were trained by Ben O. Davis • Davis was the first African American graduate at West Point, an exclusive military college • During his four years there, he never had a roommate, and no one ever spoke to him unless they had to do so because of school
The Tuskegee Airmen • At the time he graduated, the U.S. Military had two African-American officers, Benjamin O. Davis Sr. (his father) and Benjamin O. Davis Jr. • Before the beginning of WWII, President Roosevelt, in response to public pressure for greater black participation in the military as war approached, ordered the War Department to create a black flying unit • Davis was one of the first trained
The Tuskegee Airmen • His military decorations included the Air Force Dusinguished Service Medal, Army Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal,
Benjamin O. Davis paved the way for other African-Americans in the military and in politics
The Tuskegee Airmen • The Training of the Tuskegee Airmen began in June 1941 • They overcame a great deal of discrimination and racism to do an amzing job • Their accomplishments included: a destroyer sunk only by machine gun fire, and numerous fuel dumps, trucks and trains.
The Tuskegee Airmen • They flew more than 15,000 sorties and 1500 missions. The unit received recognition through official channels, and won two Presidential Unit Citations, 744 Air Medals, 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 14 Bronze Stars, and several Silver Stars.
The Tuskegee Airmen • In all, 992 pilots were trained in Tuskegee from 1940 to 1946. About 450 deployed overseas and 150 lost their lives in training or combat. • Never lost a bomber to enemy fire!!!
The Tuskegee Airmen and the First Lady • First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt flew for an hour with one of the African-American instructors • She also corresponded with one of the airmen throughout the war • She personally encouraged her husband to use them to their full potential
Women Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3
The WASP’s - Women Airforce Service Pilots • Jackie Cochran was a very famous female pilot who had already set several flying records and won many air races • She wrote Mrs. Roosevelt a letter suggesting that female pilots could provide much help in war times. By taking over non-combat duties, more male pilots could be relieved for the active fighting. Jacqueline "Jackie" Cochran First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt
Women Airforce Service Pilots • In May 1940, another women pilot, Nancy Harkness Love, made a similar proposal to the Army’s Air Corps Ferrying Command. • She suggested that about 50 very experienced female flyers could ferry planes for the Army from factories to air bases to relieve male pilots of this duty. Nancy Harkness Love
Jackie Cochran was able to convince an officer to let her help deliver a plane to England In June 1941, Jackie Cochran was the first woman allowed to fly a military aircraft across the Atlantic (although she was not allowed to handle the takeoff and landing). She ended up staying an England, volunteering for the British Air Transport Auxiliary
WAC-Women’s Auxiliary Corps • Officially not a part of the Army- at first • They took over non-violent jobs to free up men • Their job list included adjutant, administrative, bombing records, civilian classification, cryptography, engineering exchange, fiscal and budget, information and filter center, insurance, intelligence, laundry management, legal, mess, meteorology, message center, motion picture, motor transport, music, personnel, photography, postal, public relation registrar, ration, signal officer, special services, statistical, school secretary and supply. More than 200,000 women worked more than 239 different jobs!