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Introduction, History and Computer Basics. Introduction to Computers and Computer Technology. Computer Science: A foundation. Programming Game Development Software Engineering. Networking Security System Administration Information Technology. Web design and development Animation

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Introduction, History and Computer Basics


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    1. Introduction, History and Computer Basics Introduction to Computers and Computer Technology

    2. Computer Science: A foundation • Programming • Game Development • Software Engineering • Networking • Security • System Administration • Information Technology • Web design and development • Animation • Modeling • History • Perspective • Social issues • Economic issues • Ethic issues • Consumer issues Software Development Networking and IT Digital Media General Education A computer science foundation

    3. Role of Algorithms • Algorithm: A set of steps that defines how a task is performed • Program: A representation of an algorithm • Programming: The process of developing a program • Software: Programs and algorithms • Hardware: Equipment used to input information (data) and output the results of the programs, algorithms. Hardware Software Programming Program Algorithm

    4. Origins of Computing Machines:Early computing devices • Abacus: positions of beads represent numbers Abacus 300 BC by Babylonians around 1200 A.D. in China and Japan

    5. Early computing devices Pascal’s mechanical calculator - 1645 Gear-based machines (1600s-1800s) Positions of gears represent numbers Inventors: Blaise Pascal, Wilhelm Leibniz, Charles Babbage

    6. Early Data Storage • Punched cards • First used in Jacquard Loom (1801) to store patterns for weaving cloth • Storage of programs in Babbage’s Analytical Engine • Popular through the 1970’s

    7. Early programming • Augusta Ada King (Byron), Countess of Lovelace (1815-1852) • She is known as the "first programmer". • The computer language Ada, created by the U.S. Defense Department, was named after Ada Lovelace.

    8. Babbage’s Difference Engine (1822) Part of the Difference Engine (below) • Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs. (1822) • The first difference engine was composed of around 25,000 parts, weighed fifteen tons (13,600 kg), and stood 8 ft (2.4 m) high. Although he received ample funding for the project, it was never completed. (Wikipedia)

    9. Early Computers • Here is a brief overview of some of the early computers and trends in computing. Vacuum tube Transistor Microchip

    10. First Generation – Vacuum Tubes • 1930’s – Vacuum tubes were used as electronic circuits or electronic switches.

    11. 1946 - ENIAC • First large-scale electronic digital computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) • 30 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high • 3 additions every second, (incredibly slow by today’s standards). • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAnhFNJgNYY

    12. Second Generation – Transistors • 1947 - Walter Brittain and Willaim Shockley invented the transistor at Bell Laboratories • Replaced the vacuum tube as an electronic switch

    13. Third Generation – Integrated Circuits • 1959, Jack Kirby and Robert Noyce (who later became the cofounder of Intel Corp.) developed the first integrated circuit (silicon chip or microchip). • An integrated circuit (IC) is a system of interrelated circuits packaged together on a single sliver of silicon. • It is a way of placing multiple (millions) transistor devices into as single, smaller device, the “microchip.” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWVywhzuHnQ&feature=related

    14. Fourth Generation - Microprocessor • A microprocessor is a Central Processing Unit (CPU) on a single chip. • 1971, Intel Corp. introduced the first microprocessor chip. • Intel 4004 • 108 kHz and contained (equivalent of) 2300 transistors

    15. IBM Personal Computer • On August 12, 1981, IBM released their new computer, named the IBM PC • 2004 – IBM sells PC business to Lenovo

    16. Apple Computers • 1975 – Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak starts Apple Computer • 1984 – Apple Macintosh with Graphical User Interface (GUI)

    17. Laptops • 1981 - Adam Osborne, produced the Osborne 1 • 1988 - Compaq laptop with color screen • 2008 – Macbook Air – thinnest laptop • 2011 – Dell XPS 15Z – thinnest Windows laptop

    18. Trends from 1990 to today… • Microsoft continues to update Windows with latest version Windows called “Windows 8” • LINUX operating system, an open source version of UNIX, is taking on MS Windows and gaining in popularity • IBM has stopped making small computers; sold their business to Lenovo • HP, the largest maker of PC is planning to sell their PC division • Apple continues to be a major player in personal computers, especially for the “creative market”, iPods, iPads, iPhones, etc. • Google has become a major player in the Internet solutions

    19. Trends from 1990 to today… • Faster • Smaller • More reliable • Less expensive • Easier to use

    20. Fifth Generation • Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are continuing to be in development. • Parallel Processing is coming and showing the possibility that the power of many CPU's can be used side by side, and computers will be more powerful than those under central processing. • The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.

    21. Computer Basics

    22. What is a computer? A computer is a digital device which can be programmed to change (process) information from one form to another. Do exactly as they are told. Digital devices: Understand only two different states (OFF and ON - 0 and 1) 22

    23. Traditional Types of Computers General purpose computers Super computer Mainframe Personal Computer 23

    24. Traditional types of computers: • Super computers • fast processing power • used by NASA and similar organizations • Example: CRAY supercomputers

    25. Traditional Types of Computers: First computers, introduced in 1950s Used by large businesses Typically supported thousands of users Very expensive Used for very large processing tasks IBM’s new Mainframe http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LN4J4mClckA • Mainframe Computers 25

    26. Traditional Types of Computers:Personal Computers Small, self-contained computers with their own CPUs Uses a microprocessor, a CPU (Central Processing Unit) on a single chip. 26

    27. Personal Computers • Desktop computers • Laptop computers • Tablets • Wearables 27

    28. Hardware versus Software Hardware = The physical components that make up a computer system. 28

    29. Hardware versus Software Software = The programs (instructions) that tell the computer what to do. System Software Application Software Stored on a storage media such as hard disk, CD-ROM, floppy disk, tape, etc. 29

    30. Hardware Components PROCESS Know these! 30

    31. Input and Output Devices 31

    32. The Processor Let’s open the box! 32

    33. The Processor circuit board = a board with integrated circuits (microchips) system board or motherboard interface boards or expansion boards system board or motherboard = a single circuit board with the components which make up the computer’s processor for a microcomputer, including the: CPU (Central Processing Unit) Memory RAM ROM or ROM BIOS expansion slots 33

    34. 34

    35. The Processor: The CPU CPU (Central Processing Unit) = A complex collection of electronic circuits on one or more integrated circuits (chips) which: 1. executes the instructions in a software program 2. communicates with other parts of the computer system, especially RAM and input devices The CPU is the computer! Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 35

    36. RAM RAM is TEMPORARY memory RAM is volatile stores ON and OFF bits (software and data) electrically when power goes off, everything in RAM is lost 36

    37. ROM (Read Only Memory) ROM (Read Only Memory) = integrated circuits (microchips) that are used to permanently store start-up (boot) instructions and other critical information Read Only = information which: Cannot be changed Cannot be removed Fixed by manufacturer 37

    38. ROM (Read Only Memory) ROM is sometimes known as ROM BIOS (Basic Input Output System software) ROM contains: start-up (boot) instructions instructions to do “low level” processing of input and output devices, such as the communications with the keyboard and the monitor 38

    39. Computer Performance: CPU speed (and type) Amount of RAM (and speed) Hard disk capacity 39

    40. Software System Software Application Software 40

    41. Application Software Performs specific tasks: Word processing Calculations Information storage and retrieval Accounting Games Cannot function without the OS (Operating System) Written for a specific operating system and computer hardware. 41

    42. Operating System Software Loads automatically when you switch on a computer Main roles: Controls hardware and software Permits you to manage files Acts as intermediary between user and applications 42

    43. GUI – Graphical User Interface Windows 3.1 Windows 95/98/XP 43

    44. CLI – Command Line Interface No GUI MS DOS / Command Prompt Linux / Unix 44