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ENGINEERING: Itisrocket science!
ICE BREAKER What is the name of the First Space Rocket? A) Europa B) Apollo 11 C) German V2 What year was the first manned mission to the moon, Apollo 11? A) August 6, 1967 B) July 16, 1969 C) June 8, 1970 Saturn V, was the largest & most powerful launch vehicle? How tall was it? A) 110.6m B) 160.7m C) 104.2m
Movies • Fireworks • Military • Ejection Seat
Newton’s Third Law: To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Sir Isaac Newton Father of Modern Physics
Hot gas under high pressure is produced by the burning of a rocket fuel in a combustion chamber ACTION REACTION THRUST
Parts of the Rocket • Body • Air (pressurized) • Water • Air Pump • Fin • Latch and Trigger • Nozzle • Launch Pad • Nose Cone 9 2 3 1 5 7 6 4 8
What makes it fly?! 1. The COMPRESSED AIR pushes on the water as it tries to expand. 2. The water is pushed downward through the nozzle. 3. When water rushes through the nozzle, it makes THRUST. 4. The thrust pushes the rocket upward into the sky! 5. The fin and the nose cone act together to keep the rocket from tumbling.
Too much water? 1. The rocket runs out of air pressure before all of the water is pushed out. 2. Since the water is no longer being pushed out, the rocket loses THRUST. 3. The rocket and all of the extra water fall to the ground!
Not enough water? 1. The rocket runs out of water before it runs out of AIR PRESSURE. 2. Since there is no more water rushing through the nozzle, the rocket loses THRUST. 3. All of the extra AIR PRESSURE is wasted through the nozzle. 4. The empty bottle coasts for a while, but then falls to the ground. Puhhh!
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Externaltank Rocket Boosters
An Engineer’s View: Ideal Gas Law • Describes how gasses compress and expand • How hard does the air push on the water? • Chemistry • Thermodynamics • Describes how fluids flow over and through various shapes • Fluid Dynamics • Calculates the amount of thrust that is produced by a fluid moving through a nozzle • Fluid Dynamics • Physics Ideal Gas Law Bernoulli’s Equation Bernoulli’s Equation Thrust Equation Thrust Equation
Lets Experiment! Question: What amount of water will make the rocket fly the highest? Procedure: 1. Fill the rocket completely with water. 2. Mount the rocket on the launcher and pump it up to 30 psi. 3. Launch the rocket, and measure the height by measuring the length of fishing line it pulls off the reel. 4. Record the measurement and any observations on the datasheet. 5. Repeat steps 1-4 with the bottle ¾ full, ½ full, ¼ full, and empty.