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The Integumentary System. The skin, nails, hair and glands. Different functions. Serves as a barrier against infection and injury Helps regulate body temperature Removes waste products from the body Provides protection against UV radiation Serves as a gateway of sensation

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the integumentary system

The Integumentary System

The skin, nails, hair and glands

different functions
Different functions
  • Serves as a barrier against infection and injury
  • Helps regulate body temperature
  • Removes waste products from the body
  • Provides protection against UV radiation
  • Serves as a gateway of sensation
    • Pressure, heat, cold, pain
different layers of skin
Different layers of skin
  • 1. epidermis
  • 2. dermis
  • 3. hypodermis
  • The outer layer of skin
  • 2 layers
    • Outer epidermis
      • Part that comes into contact with the environment
      • Made up of dead cells
    • Inner epidermis
      • Made up of living cells
      • Undergo rapid cell division, pushing older cells to surface
      • Cells produce keratin (a special protein) to make skin tough and waterproof
  • The outer layer of dead cells is shed at a rate of once every 4-5 weeks
  • Contains melanocytes
    • Melanocytes are cells that produce melanin, which is a dark brown pigment
    • Melanin helps protect the skin from UV light
    • The amount of melanin produced by the melanocytes is responsible for the variety of skin colors
  • The Inner layer of the skin
  • Lies beneath the epidermis and contains collagen fibers, blood vessels, nerve endings, glands, sensory receptors, smooth muscle and hair follicles
how does the skin regulate body temperature
How does the skin regulate body temperature?
  • When the body is cold, blood vessels in the dermis become narrow
    • This prevents heat from the core from being lost to the environment (skin is the barrier between body and environment)
  • When the body is hot, the blood vessels widen
    • This brings more heat from the body core which is given off to the environment
glands of the dermis
Glands of the Dermis
  • Sweat Glands
    • When the body is hot, these glands produce sweat
    • Sweat evaporates and increases heat loss from the body
    • Sweat is mostly made up of water and salt
      • It can also contain other substances that the body wants to get rid of
      • In this way the skin acts in an excretory roll as well
glands of the dermis1
Glands of the Dermis
  • Sebaceous (Oil) Glands
    • Produce an oily secretion call sebum
    • Sebum spreads along the skin to help keep the epidermis flexible and waterproof
sun exposure and skin
Sun exposure and skin
  • Benefits
    • Body relies on sunlight to help make vitamin D
  • Negatives
    • Exposure in excess and lead to skin cancer
    • Always wear sunscreen for prevention
hair and nails
Hair and Nails
  • The basic component of human hair and nails is keratin
  • In other animals keratin also makes up horns in cows, quills on porcupines, feathers on birds, scales on reptiles
  • Hair protects our scalp from UV light, prevents particles from entering our body through the nose, eye and ear, and provides insulation from the cold
  • Hair follicles
    • Tube like pockets of epidermal cells where hair is produced
    • Have an oil gland that secretes oil to protect the hair as well
  • Grow from an area of rapidly dividing cells known as the nail root
  • Cells being produced at the nail root fill with keratin and produce the tough platelike structure of nails
  • Interesting fact:
    • Fingernails grow 4x faster than toenails
  • Is a subcutaneous layer of fat and connective tissue beneath the dermis that help to insulate the body
  • Primary site of fat storage in the body