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Object-Process Methodology (Cont.). The basic premise of OPM is that objects and processes are two types of equally important classes of things, that together faithfully describe both the structure and the behavior of systems in a single model in virtually any domain.

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slide1

Object-Process Methodology (Cont.)

  • The basic premise of OPM is that objects and processes are two types of equally important classes of things, that together faithfully describe both the structure and the behavior of systems in a single model in virtually any domain.
  • At any point in time, each object is at some state, and object states are transformed through the occurrence of a process.
  • Complexity is controlled through recursive and selective scaling (zooming) of objects and/or processes to any desired level of detail.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

opm principles
OPM Principles
  • Objects and processes are the two types of equally important things (entities) required to describe a system in a single, unifying model.
  • Processes transform objects by changing their state. Transformation includes creation and elimination.
  • Scaling can be applied recursively and selectively to both objects and processes.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

objects processes things

B1

P1

T1

Objects, Processes, Things
  • Object - has the potential of persistent unconditionalexistence for some positive duration of time.
  • Process- a pattern of changing that transforms one or more objects by changing their state or by creating or destroying them.
  • Thing: a generalization of an object and a process.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide4

Structure

  • The static, relatively stable aspect of the system
  • Non-transient, long-term relationships among objects in the system
  • A snapshot of the system at a given time point that describes the state of the system - the state of each of its object
  • Structure is about the static aspect of the system, while behavior is about its dynamics.
  • Structural Relation - an association that holds between two or more things (objects and/or processes) in the system for some non-negligible time.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide5

Structural relations

1. General structural relations

bi-directional structural link:

unidirectional structural link:

2. Fundamental structural relations

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide6

Fundamental Structural Relation

  • one of the following structural relations:
  • Aggregation-Particulation
  • Featuring-Characterization
  • Generalization-Specialization
  • Classification-Instantiation
  • Since those relations are so widespread, special symbols are assigned for their corresponding links

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide7

Aggregation-Particulation:

      • OPL:
      • Image consists of Foreground and Background.
  • Aggregation exists between things of the same kind:
  • An object aggregates objects and process - processes.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide8

Featuring-Characterization

Feature:a thing that characterizes a thing.Attribute:a feature which is an object.Operation:a feature which is a process (also known as method or service).

ניתוח מערכות מידע

  • OPL: Image exhibits Name andSituation, as well as Display.
slide9

B

is in front of

A

D

C

Instantiation-Materialization:

  • Cylinder A and Cylinder B are instances of Cylinder.
  • Box C and Box D are instances of Box.
  • Box C is in front of Box D.
  • Box D is in front of Cylinder B.
  • Box D is right of Cylinder A.
  • Cylinder A is left of Cylinder B.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide10

Generalization-Specialization:

  • a structural relation that defines the relation between a general things and its specializations.
  • also known as gen-spec;
  • induces inheritance
  • Symbol:

An object generalizes objects and process - processes.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide11

Camera

uses

Case

Capturing-

Medium

holds

Lens

is attached-to

Analog-

Camera

Electronic-

Camera

uses

Focal-

length

Operation-

mode

Photographic

Film

Magnetic

Tape

uses

Structural links: an example

ניתוח מערכות מידע

procedural links
Procedural links
  • Procedural linkis a link that connects a process with an object that is involved in the occurrence of that process.

There are two types of procedural links:

  • Enabling linkis a procedural link that connects a process with an Enabler of that process.
  • Transformationlinkis a procedural link that connects a process with a Transformed object of that process.
  • OPL: Procedural link generalizes Enabling link and Transformationlink.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

enablers
Enablers
  • Enabler of a process is an object that must be present in order for that process to occur but is not transformed by the process.
  • An enabler is a role that an object assumes with respect to a particular process.
  • Two Enabler types:
  • OPL: Enabler generalizes Agent and Instrument.
    • Agent: an intelligent enabler, which can control the process it enables by exercising common sense or goal-oriented considerations.
    • Instrument: any non-agent enabler.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

enabler examples
Enabler Examples
  • Agents: human, organization, a unit within a man-made organization, such as department, city council, government, team, company, brigade.
  • Not any human or organization is necessarily an agent.
  • Instruments:machines, tools, computers, robots, hardware, software, documents, orders, recipes, algorithms, files, information, data and commands

ניתוח מערכות מידע

transformation links
Transformation links
  • Effectlinkis a transformation link that connects a process with its affected object or with the affected object states.
  • Consumptionlinkis a transformation link that connects a process with a consumed object of that process.
  • Resultlinkis a transformation link that connects a process with a resulting object of that process.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

object process diagram opd

Scene

Imaging-

Device

Imaging

Image

The Imaging System:

Top-level OPD

Object-Process Diagram (OPD)

An OPD is a diagram showing the objects and processes in the system, or part of it, at some level of detail, along with the structural and procedural relations among them.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide17

Scene

Imaging-

Imaging

Device

Image

Camera

Range-

Sensor

Case

Film

Lens

The Imaging System: Imaging-Device unfolded

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide18

Scene

Imaging-

Imaging

Device

Camera

Range-

Image

Sensor

Photography

Range-

Sensing

The Imaging System: Imaging unfolded

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide19

Scene

Imaging-

Device

Imaging

Camera

Range-

Sensor

Photography

Range-

Sensing

Image

Range-

Photographic-

Image

Image

The Imaging System: Image unfolded

The OPD shows both the static structure and the dynamic behavior of the system in one model.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide20

Status and State

  • State is a situation at which the object can exist for some time.
  • Status is an attribute of an object whose values are states.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide21

Status Representations

ניתוח מערכות מידע

Implicit Status Representation

Explicit Status Representation

slide22

The effect of Process on Object

    • Left: Lamp can be off or on.
    • Lighting changes Lamp from on to of.
  • Right: Lamp exhibits Status.
  • Status can be off or on.
  • Lighting changes Status of Lamp from off to on.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide23

Scaling: a complexity management tool

  • Scaling (zooming)- the mechanism of exposing more or less details of the system. This enables shifting the focus of interest from one thing to another without loosing the “big picture”.
  • Each scaling yields a new OPD.
  • The entire system is represented by the OPD set, in which each OPD is some view emphasizing part of the system.
  • Scaling up: zooming in; detailing; showing more details of a thing.
  • Scaling down: zooming out; abstracting; showing less details of a thing.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide24

Types of Scaling

  • Unfolding - uses , , or , any general structural link, or state expression. Reverse direction:Folding.
  • Zooming-in - the frame of the thing is blown up and inner details are exposed. Reverse direction:Zooming-out.

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide25

B1

B1

B1.1

B1

P1.1

B1.2

P1.1

B1.1

B1.2

Unfolding of B1

Zooming into B1

Two Types of Scaling:

scaling of an object

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the flange drilling system

Computerized Numeric

Control (CNC) Machine

Flange

Operator

Drilling

Disk

The Flange Drilling System

Legend

Object

Process

Transformation

link

Agent link

Instrument link

ניתוח מערכות מידע

structural links aggregation as an example

Control

Drilling

Structural Links:aggregation as an example

CNC Machine

Legend

Controller

Metal

Object

Cutting Unit

Process

Transformation

link

Agent link

Flange

Operator

Instrument link

Aggregation

ניתוח מערכות מידע

Disk

zooming into control

Command

Generation

Drilling

Zooming into Control

CNC Machine

Legend

Object

Process

Transformation

link

Controller

Agent link

Control

Metal

Instrument link

Command

Cutting Unit

Aggregation

Command

Blow-up frame

Control

Transfer

ניתוח מערכות מידע

Flange

Operator

Disk

the time line flows from top to bottom

on

CNC

on

CNC

Feed

Make Holes

Remove

The time line flows from top to bottom

Disk

Legend

Flange

Object

Metal

Cutting

Unit

Process

Location

Transformation

link

Location

on in

stack

Agent link

on out

stack

Instrument link

Drilling

Characterization

Blow-up frame

Attribute value

Initial state

ניתוח מערכות מידע

Operator

Final state

slide30

Automated Telling Machine (ATM) System

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide31

Transaction Execution zoomed-in

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide32

Account Checking blown up

ניתוח מערכות מידע

slide33

Transaction Processing zoomed-in

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