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Electric Baseload Basics ACI 09 FUND 8: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 2:00 pm to 3:40 pm Kansas City, Missouri. Rana Belshe Conservation Connection Consulting Fairchild, Wisconsin 715-334-2707. A. Tamasin Sterner Pure Energy Lancaster, Pennsylvania 717-293-8990. Session Objectives.

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slide1

Electric Baseload BasicsACI 09 FUND 8: Wednesday, April 29, 20092:00 pm to 3:40 pm Kansas City, Missouri

Rana Belshe

Conservation Connection Consulting

Fairchild, Wisconsin

715-334-2707

A. Tamasin Sterner

Pure Energy

Lancaster, Pennsylvania

717-293-8990

session objectives
Session Objectives

Learn how to separate electric baseload from whole house electric use

Explore how occupants, equipment, and use patterns affect electricity consumption

Evaluate options and actions to reduce use

today s topics
Today’s Topics

The equipment we will talk about today:

    • Electronics
    • Lighting
    • Refrigeration
    • Water Heating
    • And a few other things
  • What they use
  • How they work
  • What can be done – in terms of measures and behaviors
baseload seasonal total household electric use
Baseload + Seasonal = Total Household Electric Use

Baseload: Electricity that power things—lights and appliances--used year round

Seasonal use: Electricity used to provide heating, cooling, often dehumidification

The goal is to understand how a particular household uses electricity, identify the possibilities for reducing that use and dialogue with the occupant for the best possible outcomes.

holiday hell o
Holiday Hell-o

Example of lighting as a seasonal load

Photo: A. Tamasin Sterner, Pure Energy

reasons to address baseload
Reasons to Address Baseload

Sometimes, reducing electric baseload can guarantee better savings than measures geared toward reducing the cost of heating and/or cooling: Savings Follows Use.

Plug loads are increasing.

Electric energy waste (energized equipment not in active use) is increasing.

slide9
“ Electricity originates inside clouds. There it forms lightning, which is attracted to the earth by golfers. After entering the ground, the electricity hardens into coal, which, when dug up by power companies and burned in big ovens called “generators,” turns back into electricity, which is sent in the form of “volts” (also known as “watts” or “rpm” for short) through special wires with birds sitting on them to consumers’ homes, where it is transformed by TV sets into commercials for beer, which passes through the consumer and back into the ground, thus completing what is known as a “circuit.”

Dave Barry, Funny Times, 2002

electricity energy power
Electricity: Energy & Power

Energy

From meter to utility bill

power over time

  • Watt hour - Wh
  • kiloWatt hour - kWh

(1,000 Wh)

Power

Nameplate – potential –instantaneous demand

  • Watt - W
  • kiloWatt (1,000 W) – kW
  • Watt - is one joule per second or the power supplied when a current of one ampere is driven by a potential difference of one volt
energy cost value february 4 2009
Energy Cost & ValueFebruary 4, 2009

Cost/Unit x Unit/MBtu = Cost/Mbtu

Pricing Source: ww.eia.doe.gov.neic/experts/heatcalc.xls

tools of the trade
Tools of the Trade

2-3 prong adapter

MicroWeir or stop watch and container

Drip gauge

Lamp harp and diffuser extenders

Product sheet showing replacement light fixtures

Screwdrivers, pliers, or a multipurpose tool like a Leatherman™

Laptop computer with appliance use software

  • Consumption history
  • Calculator
  • Camera
  • Clipboard & pen
  • Tape measure
  • kWh meter
  • Ground tester
  • Thermometers
  • Flashlight
  • Ladder
  • Gloves (to remove hot bulbs)
  • Extension cord
establish baseload use
Establish Baseload Use

Obtain (a printout of) the customer’s electricity use for at least one year prior to the site visit.

Separate the baseload use from the total use by:

adding together the three lowest months (not weird numbers)

dividing the sum by 3 to get an average baseload month’s use

multiplying that number by 12 months

This can easily be done visually from a bar chart.

There are lots of ways to do this. They all work.

slide16
Annual Customer Usage Printout

LANCASTERPA17603

LANActive 40256S25894Non Ele Ht Cool

1. Three lowest months = 892+ 1,056+ 1,134 = 3,082 ÷ 3 months

2. Average monthly use = 1,027 kWh/mo

3. 1,027 kWh/mo x 12 mo = 12,328 kWh/yr baseload

slide17
Consumption History

Approximate monthly baseload use ~ 600 kWh or about 7,200 kWh/year

annual end use consumption ranges kwh
Annual End Use Consumption Ranges (kWh)

National averages trued up to PA utility program experience

assess the opportunity for energy savings
Assess the Opportunity for Energy Savings

Determine if the customer’s use is in the low, mid range, or high range using their consumption history or data on their utility bills.

Focus your efforts in the home based on your determination.

Since savings follows use, you will likely find more opportunities to save energy where the use is high.

If any category of use is low, then save time and focus where the use is medium or high

savings follows use waste
Savings Follows Use / Waste

Total electricity use relates directly

to potential electricity savings

reasons for high baseload
Reasons for High Baseload
  • Time on – 24/7 adds up quickly
  • High demand / power (kW)
  • Poor control strategies
  • Not known to be operating
  • Faulty equipment
  • Intermittent use
  • Hidden loads
  • Lots of people in the household

PPL Managing CAP Credits Pilot Program, 2006

what does my bill pay for
What Does My Bill Pay For

Source: 2007 Buildings Energy Data Book

why address baseload electricity use is rising
Why Address Baseload?Electricity Use is Rising

Mark Fortney, 2007, PHRC, PA Home Energy Forum

slide24
Plug Load Energy Use is Increasing

U.S. delivered residential energy consumption by end use,

2001, 2004, 2015, and 2030 (million Btu per household)

Source: Energy Information Administration 2006

slide25
@ $.09/kWh

“NRDC Study of Set Top Box and Game Console Power Use”, Peter Ostendorp, Ecos Consulting, May 2007

plug load baseload energy use by product category
Plug Load Baseload Energy Use by Product Category

2007 Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”: Share of Plug Load Energy Use by Product Category27

power settings mode
Power Settings & Mode

ON

REALLY OFF

“OFF”

  • Standby power
  • Phantom load
  • Vampire power
  • Idle power

Anything with a remote, display, touchpad, or light is using power even when turned “off”

Active power

Low power mode

Indeterminate power

Sleep/hibernate

No power

Unplugged

Power switched off with strip or other control device

game console power use
Game Console Power Use

NRDC Study of Set Top Box and Game Console Power Use, May 2007, Peter Ostendorp, Ecos Consulting

power supplies a growing component
Power Supplies: A Growing Component

Function: convert wall voltage ac to low voltage dc needed to operate today’s digital chips, LED indicators, displays, etc.

6% to 10% of U.S. electricity flows through the nation’s 3.6 billion power supplies

  • Roughly 1 to 2% of U.S. electricity could be saved by improving power supply efficiency
    • $2.1 to 4.2 billion saved by consumers on their electricity bills
    • Prevent release of 40 to 80 million tons of CO2 into the atmosphere
    • Equivalent of taking 2.3 to 4.6 million cars off the road
    • Equivalent of building roughly 4.5 to 9 average sized power plants

2007 Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”

sample annual kwh of tvs by mode
Sample Annual kWh of TVs by Mode

Standby power is similar regardless of TV type or size.

Newer TVs use a lot more energy than older ones.

Larger and newer technologies (plasma & rear projection) tend to be used more and are frequently part of a larger entertainment set up.

Source: Ecos Consulting, “Final Field Research Report”, 2007

managing computer power use
Managing Computer Power Use

Teach everyone that it makes sense to Turn off monitor if not using for > 5-20 min. and both CPU and monitor if not using for > 30-60 min.

Use power strips for positive “off” and control of peripherals

Learn about and teach others about how to Activate Power Management Functions

Maximize sleep features in the operating system

battery charging strategies
Battery Charging Strategies
  • Chargers can draw 5 to 20 times more power than they can store so...
    • Unplug chargers once battery is charged
    • Use timer to control charge cycle
  • Choose equipment based on charging performance

Buy efficient chargers

Use rechargeable batteries

Use power strips to simplify disconnecting chargers

advanced power strip options
Advanced Power Strip Options

http://www.p3international.com

http://wattstopper.com

http://www.smarthomeusa.com/Shop/Smart-Energy/Smart-Strip

slide34
Strategies to Control Home Electronic Energy Use

Unplug stuff you don’t use

Manage control settings for maximum efficiency

Turn equipment off when not actively using

Minimize standby use with power strips, switched outlets, unplugging, etc.

Purchase less stuff

Buy the most efficient products possible

what affects lighting use
What Affects Lighting Use?

Number of sockets/bulbs

Hours of use

Wattage

Lumens (brightness)

Restrictive fixtures / colors

Task vs general lighting

For each bulb:

  • Watts x hours = Wh
  • Wh x .001 = kWh
  • kWh x $/kWh = Cost
lumen comparison
Lumen Comparison

http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=cfls.pr_cfls

lighting
Lighting

Lighting can be a surprising share of baseload-- 15-20%

Average home has 25 - 43 sockets/bulbs

CFLs can typically reduce use electricity use by two-thirds or more

Reduced waste heat saves on air conditioning and improves comfort

choosing bulbs
Choosing Bulbs

Look for Energy Star logo

Select the best bulb for the fixture

Shape

Location

Color quality

Dimmability

Highest lumens per Watt

Be aware of weight and overheating

Mercury content/disposal

Lumen equivalency, not Watts

Electronic interference

3 valuable pieces of information
3 Valuable Pieces of Information

Lumens

Watts

Life

Use the box as a teaching aid with customers

efi bulb finder
EFI Bulb Finder

www.energyfederation.org

led lighting
LED Lighting

http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=fixtures.pr_light_fixtures

hard wired fixtures
Hard-wired Fixtures

http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=fixtures.pr_light_fixtures

feedback from the field
Feedback From the Field

Issues:

The light is not bright enough

The bulb doesn’t fit within fixture

The bulb takes too long to brighten

The bulb looks weird

The bulb was installed without customer acceptance

Too few were installed

Disposal and mercury concerns

So, to assure client satisfaction, choose carefully. There are plenty of excellent CFL’s available.

baseload and building science
Baseload and Building Science
  • One example:
  • Recessed lights are holes in the envelope, most of which leak air
  • Local hot spot enhances exfiltration forces
  • A 13 watt bulb increases air flow through a leaky can by 60% when it’s on, a 50 watt bulb by 170% and a 100 watt bulb by 400%!

Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc

telltale signs in the snow
Telltale Signs in the Snow

Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc

can light above bed in mbr
Can Light Above Bed in MBR

Customer complained about cold air in bedroom

IR spot radiometer has laser pointer, costs $120

Reveals non-trivial problem that’s clear to all (including customer)

IAT = 70F; OAT = 25F; Can = 43F

Warm air rises, cold air descends!

Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc

ceiling fixture
Ceiling Fixture

Includes hard wired CFL, electronic ballast

Can cover “can” lights; providing better, diffuse light and allows the cans to be air sealed and insulated

Saves electricity and gas!

Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc

ceiling fixture1
Ceiling Fixture

This Instant Pendant Light screws into the recessed light fixture

powerlux solution no leaks
PowerLux Solution—No Leaks

Ballast is outside of hot can in rim where it stays cool

CFLs that fit the system are available in 18, 26, 32, and 42 watts, and in color temperatures from 2700 to 4100K

All have a color rendering index of 82 and 12,000 hour lifetimes

Initial luminous efficacy ranges from 67 to 76 lm/W

Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc

slide53
Outcome of Dirty Photocell

A. Tamasin Sterner, Pure Energy

strategies to reduce electric light use
Strategies To Reduce Electric Light Use

Use natural light whenever possible

Turn lights off when not needed – especially anything left on 24/7

Consider photo and occupancy sensors

Choose bulbs with highest lumens per watt

Select lighting to fit each task or situation

Use a low watt nightlight instead of a main light

Use light colored lampshades/reflector cans

Clean bulbs and fixtures for brightest light

factors affecting refrigerator energy use
Factors Affecting Refrigerator Energy Use
  • Size
  • Features
  • Age
  • Ambient air temperature
  • Control settings
    • Thermostats
    • Anti-sweat (energy saver) switch
  • Loading patterns
  • Covered containers
  • Condition of door gaskets
  • Cleanliness of coils
  • Door openings
safe and efficient temperatures
Safe and Efficient Temperatures
  • Desired Temperatures:
  • Fresh food: 36-40°F
  • Freezer: 0-5°F
  • Measure temperatures in the middle of the fresh food and freezer compartments
  • Use standard or digital thermometers. A non-contact thermometer is not suitable for testing the temperatures inside refrigerators.

http://www.aham.org/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/844

slide58
Beer Fridge and Freezer in the Heated Garage is an Expensive Choice

A. Tamasin Sterner, Pure Energy

energy consumption of u s refrigerators
Energy Consumption of U.S. Refrigerators

Source: Kinney and Belshe, Refrigerator Replacement in the Weatherization Program: Putting a Chill on Energy Waste.

E Source, September 2001, page 1.

replacement criteria a good return on investment roi
Replacement CriteriaA good return on investment (ROI)

Annual Energy Use as determined by:

  • Nameplate information & look up in data base
  • Age
  • Refrigerant R-134a
  • Metering – 2 hours preferred
  • Broken – hardware failure, constant running, insufficient cooling
slide63
Calculating Payback

Fridge/Freezer Removal

kWh/yr x $/kWh = operating cost/year

= annual Savings for removing unit

Replacement Savings

old op cost – new op cost = savings/yr

Purchase Price / savings $/yr = simple payback in years

and “Savings” = tax free income!

if you meter refrigerators
If You Meter Refrigerators

Using the

Brultech ECM-1200

refrigerator testing tips
Refrigerator Testing Tips

If you interrupt a compressor cycle, wait 8 minutes before plugging it back in

If door is closed and you still have 40W on the meter, perhaps the door switch is broken or the anti-sweat heater is running

The usual running range (compressor on) is 200-400 Watts. Newer refrigerators draw about 150 Watts

Watch for defrost periods (~400 Watts)

Unplug a refrigerator to clean the coils

automatic defrost cycle 14 4 ft 3 ge unit 355 btu for 13 45 minutes
Automatic Defrost Cycle (14.4 ft3 GE unit, 355 Btu for 13.45 minutes)

Fresh food compartment

temperature does not

respond significantly

to defrost cycle.

How much time is required

for freezer temperature

recovery after defrost?

Source: Kinney and Belshe, Refrigerator Replacement in the Weatherization Program: Putting a Chill on Energy Waste.

E Source, September 2001, page 16.

strategies to reduce refrigerator energy use
Strategies to Reduce Refrigerator Energy Use

GET RID OF 2nd, 3rd, 4th UNITS

Set controls to avoid over-cooling

Keep it as cool as possible—away from stove, heat registers, direct sunlight

Understand and use the energy saver or moisture control switch if present

Be sure the door closes tightly after opening

Keep containers covered

Allow air to circulate freely around the unit and clean the condenser coils

epa watersense
EPA WaterSense

http://www.epa.gov/watersense/

annual end use consumption ranges kwh1
Annual End Use Consumption Ranges (kWh)

National averages trued up to PA utility program experience

household hot water use
Household Hot Water Use

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.2 Residential Sector Water Consumption September 2008

Note(s): 1) Based analysis on 10 single family homes in Seattle, WA

Sources: 2000 Residential End Uses of Hot Water in Single-Family Homes from Flow-Trace Analysis

http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/docs/xls_pdf/8.2.4.pdf

what affects hot water use
What Affects Hot Water Use?

Leaks

The number of occupants

Difference (∆T) between incoming & hot water temperature

Fixture flow rate

Appliance type and style

Water heater tank insulation

Water heater energy factor (EF)

Distribution piping design & location

Climate and localized ambient temperature

Time of use options

thermometers water temperature
Thermometers: Water Temperature

Recommended: 120° F

too hot water is dangerous
Too Hot Water is Dangerous

Children and elderly people are at greater risk for injury

slide76
Water Temperature Setting for Clothes Washer(millions of households)
  • Wash Cycle
  • Hot............................. 6.2
  • Warm............................ 49.7
  • Cold............................ 28.2
  • Rinse Cycle
  • Hot............................. 1.4
  • Warm............................ 16.6
  • Cold............................ 66.1
  • No Washing Machine................ 22.9

Source: www.projectlaundrylist.org

http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/hc_pdf/usage/hc6-1a_climate2001.pdf

flow gallons per minute gpm
Flow – Gallons per Minute (gpm)

OR… a stop watch & a gallon jug. If it fills in less than 2 minutes, it is likely a candidate for replacement!

Showerheads:

2.5 gpm the rule

Less is better!

Larry Kinney Photo

MicroWeir

household water use not only hot
Household Water Use – Not only Hot

http://www.energyfederation.org/consumer/default.php/cPath/27

strategies to reduce dhw use water waste
Strategies to Reduce DHW Use & Water Waste
  • Fix all leaks – hot or not
  • Keep thermostat at safe & efficient setting
  • Reduce standby losses
  • Limit use of hot water when doing laundry or cleaning
  • Turn off water when not using
  • Turn thermostat down or off for vacations
  • Manage outdoor water use: car washing, irrigation
use of clothes washer millions of u s households
Use of Clothes Washer(millions of U.S. households)

Loads of Laundry Washed Each Week

1 Load or Less.................. 6.8

2 to 9 Loads.................... 65.1

10 to 15 Loads.................. 9.6

More than 15 Loads.............. 2.7

www.projectlaundrylist.org

www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/hc_pdf/usage/hc6-1a_climate2001.pdf

use of clothes dryer millions of u s households
Use of Clothes Dryer(millions of U.S. households)

Use a Clothes Dryer............... 78.8

Every Time Clothes are Washed... 63.5

Some, but not All, Loads........ 12.7

Used Infrequently............... 2.7

No Clothes Dryer................28.2

www.projectlaundrylist.org

www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2001/hc_pdf/usage/hc6-1a_climate2001.pdf

slide82
Simple Facts

Dryers are responsible for 6-10% of domestic electricity use.

www.projectlaundrylist.org

slide83
We Looked: We Saw…
  • High occupancy
  • Anything running 24/7: air handler, lighting
  • Extra lighting
  • Multiple refrigerators and/or freezers
  • Broken appliances
  • Failing motors
  • Malfunctioning equip: well, septic, sump pumps
  • Heavy-duty battery chargers
  • Home entertainment rooms
  • Large/multiple aquariums
  • Off-site but connected loads
  • Waterbed heaters
  • Dehumidifiers set too high
  • Forgotten heaters in crawl spaces, garage, porches
  • Grow lights
  • Ice makers running without water hookup
  • Washers always using hot water
  • Ventilation equipment
  • Pressure tank problems
  • Current leaking to earth: water heater, yard line, well pump
example cost of operation
Example: Cost of Operation

Ceiling fans, too if on 24/7

Airhandler fans on 24/7 (@400-600W)

500W x 24 hours x 365 days x .001kW/W = 4,380 kWh/yr @$.10 = $438 per year

Radon exhaust fans. EPA IAQ house standards require them in attached garages. (@80-125W)

100W x 8760 hrs/yr x .001kW/W = 876 kWh/yr @ $.10 = $88 per year

slide86
High Number of Occupants

A. Tamasin Sterner, Pure Energy

influencing change
Influencing Change
  • Identify all possible opportunities to save
  • Put costs on operations and equipment use
  • Recognize what customer cares about and will/won’t do
  • Focus on biggest users
  • Prioritize where you spend your time
  • Present only options that make sense and offer a return on investment
slide88
Priorities: Recommended vs. Worthwhile: Actions

Worthwhile

AirHandlerOn->Auto

2ndFridge/FrzOff

TurnDownTstat

SetBackTstat

24hrTVsOff

CeilingFan

ComputersOff

24hrLightsOff

ClothesLine

24hrFansOff

ColdWash

LightsOff

Michael Blasnik, “Ten Simple Things that Don’t Save Very Much Energy”

ShorterShowers

HumidiferOff

VampirePowerStrips

Marginal

LidsOnPots

FiltersMonthly

Urban Legends

CleanFridgeCoils

FridgeDoorClose

CeilingFan

Waste?

Ignored

Recommended

Note: Values based somewhat on difficulty in maintaining action

baseload is a waste pollution issue
Baseload is a Waste & Pollution Issue

Over a five year period, an incandescent bulb uses electricity equal to 10 mg of mercury emissions from a coal-fired plant.

A CFL may contain 1- 4 mg of mercury, but “uses” only 2.4 mg of emissions from electricity.

Mercury in a CFL is contained and is recycled with proper disposal*. Once out of the smokestack mercury is uncontrollable.

Electricity generated from coal-fired plants is only 33% efficient at the plug. The rest of the source energy is “wasted” in generation, transmission, & distribution losses.

* www.Earth911.org

U.S. EAP 2002

coal fired electricity generation
Coal-Fired Electricity Generation

Greenhouse Gases

GHG

Carbon Dioxide

Equivalency

CO2e

NOX

SOX

Mercury (Hg)

Particulates

Water waste:

½ to 1 gallon per kWh

Photo: Rana Belshe

slide92
Feedback Welcome!

A. Tamasin Sterner

www.PureEnergyAudits.com

Rana Belshe

715-334-2707

[email protected]

Thanks to: Larry Kinney

www.synertechsystems.com

Rick Karg

www.karg.com

light fixtures in upscale home
Light fixtures in upscale home

Major leakage to attic through fixtures

Nine 75 Watt incandescent bulbs in kitchen ceiling

Middle row retrofitted with CFLs: 25W, 20W, 13W

Fix is 13W CFLs plus metal box 1 ft on a side in attic

Larry Kinney, Synertech Systems Inc

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