Lysosomes
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Lysosomes. The cell’s recycling centers. Lysosome Structure. Membrane-bound Contains powerful digestive enzymes If membrane broke open, enzymes would destroy cell Size 0.05 to 0.5 micrometers in diameter Proteins embedded in membrane

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Lysosomes

Lysosomes

The cell’s recycling centers


Lysosome structure
LysosomeStructure

  • Membrane-bound

  • Contains powerful digestive enzymes

    • If membrane broke open, enzymes would destroy cell

  • Size

    • 0.05 to 0.5 micrometers in diameter

  • Proteins embedded in membrane

    • protect activity of enzymes by regulating internal acidity

    • Transport digested materials away from lysosome



Lysosome production
Lysosome Production

  • Enzymes made in rough endoplasmic reticulum

    • Hydrolytic enzymes

  • Enzymes delivered to Golgi apparatus via transport vesicles

    • Sacs formed by rough ER

  • Golgi apparatus processes enzymes

  • Lysosomes bud from Golgi apparatus w/ enzymes inside



Lysosome function
Lysosome Function

  • Newly formed lysosomes can perform one of three tasks

    • Endocytosis

    • Phagocytosis

    • Autophagocytosis


Endocytosis
Endocytosis

  • Endocytosis

    • Cell membrane surrounds large nutritional molecule, forming an endosome

      • Complex lipids

      • Polysaccharides

      • Nucleic acids

      • Proteins

    • Lysosome fuses with endosome, delivering enzymes needed to break down molecules

    • Broken-down molecules delivered to cytoplasm by membrane proteins for later use



Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis

  • Phagocytosis

    • Cell membrane surrounds disease-causing bacteria or large object, forming phagosome

    • Lysosome joins with phagosome, breaking down the object or bacteria with enzymes



Autophagocytosis
Autophagocytosis

  • Autophagocytosis

    • ER wraps around spent cell structure, forming autophagosome

      • i.e. mitochondrion

    • Lysosome joins autophagosome, destroys structure, delivers products to cytoplasm



Vacuoles
Vacuoles

  • Found within plant cells

  • Classified by some scientists as large lysosomes

  • Much larger than other lysosomes

    • 20 µm

  • Membrane-bound

  • Maintain turgor, or water pressure, inside cell to prevent wilting

  • Storage for nutrients, pigments, and harmful materials (opium, rubber) used to deter predators