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Genetics. Ch 9 p164 – 178 Ch 12 p221 - 232. History. Gregor Mendel 1850s “Father of Genetics ” Garden Peas 7 traits Height, flower position, pod color, pod appearance, seed texture, seed color, flower color Selectively self and cross pollinated the plants Obtained pure stains

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genetics

Genetics

Ch 9 p164 – 178

Ch 12 p221 - 232

history
History
  • Gregor Mendel 1850s “Father of Genetics”
  • Garden Peas
  • 7 traits
    • Height, flower position, pod color, pod appearance, seed texture, seed color, flower color
  • Selectively self and cross pollinated the plants
  • Obtained pure stains
    • P generation – parents
    • F1 generation – the kids
  • Conclusions:
    • Traits don’t get inherited together
    • Every organism gets two copies of a trait
      • Some are dominant, some are recessive
slide3

Genotype-

    • What the genes say
      • Rr, homozygous recessive, “big big”
    • Can’t see it
  • Phenotype-
    • What the organism looks or pheels like
      • Fuzzy, brown, tall
    • Can see it
vocab double check
Vocab Double check
  • Allele
  • Trait
  • Dominant
  • Recessive
  • Cross-Pollination
  • Self-Pollination
  • Pure
  • F1 Generation
  • P Generation
  • Law of Independent Assortment
  • Law of Segregation
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype
  • Homozygous
  • Heterozygous
probability
Probability
  • - the likelyhood that something will occur
    • Everytime, doesn’t matter what happened last time
      • What are the chances of flipping a coin and getting tails?
        • 1 out of 2 sides = 50%
      • What if I just flipped a tail? Does that mean next time I WILL get a head? NO WAY!
study pages 174 and 175
Study Pages 174 and 175
  • Monohybrid cross-
    • Using a punnett square to predict the chance that an offspring will have a certain trait
    • 4 boxes
  • Dihybrid Cross-
    • Looking at TWO traits at the same time
    • 16 boxes
  • Punnett Square-
    • A tool used to predict offspring
    • One parent goes on the side, other goes on top
  • A Test Cross-
    • Used to determine the genotype of an organism
practice
Practice
  • Homozygous Recessive X Heterozygous Red (red is dominant to white)
    • Step one: Choose letter based on dominant trait
      • Hetero = Rr homo recessive = rr
    • Step two: draw box, fill in parents
      • 1st named parent or Female goes on TOP
    • Step three: fill in offspring (kids) always put capital first
    • Step four: Interpret
      • 50% are white
      • 0% are homo dom
      • 50% are heterozygous
test cross
Test Cross
  • Take an unknown organism and breed it with a pure recessive. Outcome tells you what the unknown parent was.
you do practice
You do Practice
  • Homozygous Dominant Purple X White

(Purple is dominant to White)

  • Heterozygous Fuzzy X Heterozygous Fuzzy

(Fuzzy is dominant to smooth)

  • Homozygous Recessive Short X Heterozygous Tall
  • Heterozygous Inflated X Homozygous Recessive Constricted
  • Black Rabbit X Brown Rabbit (hint p175) Black is dominant
slide10

Homozygous Dominant Purple X White

  • Heterozygous Fuzzy X Heterozygous Fuzzy
  • Homozygous Recessive Short X Heterozygous Tall
types of inheritance
Types of inheritance
  • Complete Dominance-
    • One trait totally over powers the other
    • Red + White = Red
  • Incomplete Dominance-
    • Traits will blend in the heterozygous state
    • Red + White = Pink
  • Codominance-
    • BOTH Traits show up
    • Red + White = Red + White
  • Sex-Linked-
    • Inheritence depends on offsprings sex
incomplete dominance
incomplete dominance
  • There isn’t a true dominant phenotype so what letter you use isn’t as important
  • Homozygous Dominant will be one phenotype
  • Homozygous Recessive will be another phenotype
  • Heterozygous will be a phenotype between the first two
    • RR = Red rr = White Rr = Pink
    • TT = Tall tt = Short Tt = Medium
    • BB = Blue bb = Red Bb = Purple
codominance
codominance
  • In this type of inheritance BOTH phenotypes are dominant and BOTH show up
  • Homozygous Dominant will be one phenotype
  • Homozygous Recessive will be another phenotype
  • Heterozygous will show both possibilities
    • PP = Purple P’P’ = White PP’ = One Purple petal, one White petal
    • BB = Blue B’B’ = Red BB’ = One Blue feather, one Red feather
    • RR = Red R’R’ = White RR’ = One Red hair, One white hair (this color is found commonly in horses and is known as Roan)
sex linked
Sex-linked
  • The genes for a sex-linked trait are found on the X or Y chromosome.
  • For Females, XX, it works like complete dominance and they need two recessive copies to have that trait.
  • For Males, XY, since they only get one copy, a single recessive will cause them to have the trait.
  • Two common conditions are color blindness and hemophilia
can a color blind dad give it to his sons
Can a color blind dad give it to his sons?
  • NO! The gene is on the X and Dad gives Y’s to his sons