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Smart Wind Turbine Blades. Cassel, Fraser, Larsen, McCrummen, Sarrazin ME 580 – Smart Structures. Sensor Team. ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team. Objective: Gather and support development for sensors in wind turbine blades.

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smart wind turbine blades

Smart Wind Turbine Blades

Cassel, Fraser, Larsen, McCrummen, Sarrazin

ME 580 – Smart Structures

Sensor Team

me 580 smart wind turbine blades sensor team
ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Objective:

  • Gather and support development for sensors in wind turbine blades.
  • Investigate multiple types of sensors to allow for monitoring or measuring:
    • Structural Loads
    • Tip Deflection
    • Damage
    • Environmental Aspects
piezoelectric sensing

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Piezoelectric Sensing
  • 4 Types
    • Single Crystal
      • Original
    • Ceramic
      • Similar to single crystal
    • Polymer (PVDF)
      • Flexible, poor for actuation
    • Active Fiber Composite (AFC)
      • Subset of Ceramic
      • Flexible
      • Compromise
me 580 smart wind turbine blades sensor team6
ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Piezoelectric Sensors

  • Wide frequency range
  • High voltage output (particularly PVDF)
    • No power supply needed
  • PVDF has low acoustic impedance, good for adhesives
  • High compliance in PVDF
  • Flexible, thin, easily manipulated
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ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Piezoelectric Sensor

  • Drawbacks/Considerations
    • Temperature range for PVDF: -40 to 80/100°C (Not as bad for PZT)
    • Strong pyroelectric effect
    • Inability to actuate large displacements
    • Inability to sense static load
    • Capacitive effect of unloaded area
    • Crosstalk if both driving signal and sensing
slide8

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Piezoelectric AFC

  • Ceramic-Polymer composite
  • Advantages: can custom design properties
    • Tradeoffs
    • Properties determined by:
      • Ceramic type
      • Polymer Properties
      • Volume fraction
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ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Impact Sensing

  • Weather Detection
    • Active control
    • Damage prevention
  • Wind Gust Detection
    • Active control
  • PVDF appropriate if surface mounted
    • Thin
    • Sensitive
me 580 smart wind turbine blades sensor team10
ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Vibration Sensing

  • Vibration hurts performance/strength
    • Active control
  • Most sensors can detect
  • Primary considerations: Wide frequency range, Cost
  • PVDF good for surface

mount

me 580 smart wind turbine blades sensor team11
ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Ultrasonic/NDT

  • Piezoelectric typically used.
  • PVDF good if done during operation
  • 1/64th in. smallest size
  • Depth small for small flaw
metal foil gauges

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Metal Foil Gauges
  • Uses wire resistance change to compute strain
  • Most commonly used gauge in engineering
  • Can use strain to compute stress, torque, and pressure
metal foil gauges advantages

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Metal Foil Gauges Advantages
  • Strain and Pressure gages
  • Widely available
  • Cheap
  • Easy to apply
  • Easy to use
metal foil gauges disadvantages

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Metal Foil Gauges Disadvantages
  • Must be properly bonded
  • Sensitive to temperature changes
  • Maximum strain limited to foil material used (3%)
  • Size limitations
  • Can change resistance over time (creep)
  • Susceptible to fatigue
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ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Piezo-resistive Sensing – Basic Structure

http://www.microsystems.metu.edu.tr/piezops/piezops.html

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ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Piezo-resistive Sensing – Background

  • Types of measurement
    • Pressure
    • Force
  • Higher sensitivity than standard strain gage
  • Pressure Sensor Calibration
  • Able to be microfabricated

http://www.ceatec.com/2007/en/visitor/ex_must_detail.html?exh_id=E070209

http://cooperinst.thomasnet.com/Asset/lpm562.pdf

me 580 smart wind turbine blades sensor team17
ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Piezo-resistive Sensing – Pros and Cons

  • Pros
    • Low fabrication cost
    • Varying pressure levels can be achieved
    • High sensitivity (>10mV/V)
    • Good data linearity at constant temp.
  • Cons
    • Requires significant amount of power
    • Low output signal
    • Strong drift of offset with temperature
me 580 smart wind turbine blades sensor team18
ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Piezo-resistive Sensing – Conclusion

  • Not Recommended
    • Ideal placement is blade exterior
      • Temperature change affects data collection
      • Possible weather damage to sensor
    • Required, potentially bulky equipment
      • Power source
      • Data collection device / Wireless emitter
    • Uses
      • Only designed for pressure and force data collection
    • Recommendation
      • Use a sensor that is more versatile
types of cores
Glass Cores

Plastic Cores

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Types of Cores
total internal reflection
Cladding material less dense than core material.

The critical angle is less than the angle of incidence for the core and cladding combination.

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Total Internal Reflection
fiber optic sensor pros
Essentially passive

Immune to Electrical Interference

Low Weight

Flexibility

Long Transmission Distances

Low Material Reactivity

Electrical Insulation

Electromagnetic Immunity

Multiple Sensor Multiplexing

Multi-Functionality

Good in Harsh Environments

Capable of Fitting in Small Areas

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Fiber Optic Sensor Pros
fiber optic sensor cons

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Fiber Optic Sensor Cons
  • Expensive
    • Need:
        • Fiber optic cable
        • Polarized light emitter
        • Interrogator Unit/Receiver
  • Newer Technology
      • Not time tested
  • Limited Availability
      • Few suppliers
sensing capabilities
Strain

Displacement

Vibration

Temperature

Leak Detection

Pressure

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Sensing Capabilities
fbg working principle

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

FBG Working Principle
  • Sensors created by Fiber Bragg Grating
    • An intense UV source “inscribes” a periodic variation of refractive index into the core of an optical fiber. A special germanium-doped silica fiber is used due to its photosensitivity.
    • Variations in the fiber change the reflected and transmitted response within the optical fiber. The fiber responds to strain and temperature initially, and different orientations allow for multiple sensing options.
data collection and utilization

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Data Collection and Utilization
  • Data Collection Options
    • Slip Ring
    • Brushless Slip Ring
    • Rolling Ring
    • Liquid Filled Slip Ring
    • Wireless
data collection

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Data Collection
  • Brushless Slip Ring
    • Continuous Data Collection Ability
    • Improved lifespan
      • Rolling Contacts reduce friction, reduce wear
    • Minimizes wire tanglage
        • HoneyBee Robotics
recommendations

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Recommendations
  • Test sleeve made from combination of PVDF film and fiber optic sensors.
  • PVDF film senses wind loading.
  • Fiber Optic Sensors acquire resulting strains/stresses on blade.
recommendations36

ME 580 – Smart Wind Turbine Blades – Sensor Team

Recommendations
  • Lab testing
    • Cantilever beam distributed load
      • Include tension and compression
    • Consider bank of hydraulic actuators applying load conditions, and perhaps even a cam system to apply concurrent vibration