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Recursion and Implementation of Functions. CS-2303 System Programming Concepts (Slides include materials from The C Programming Language , 2 nd edition, by Kernighan and Ritchie and from C: How to Program , 5 th and 6 th editions, by Deitel and Deitel). Definition.

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Recursion and Implementation of Functions


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    1. Recursion and Implementation of Functions CS-2303System Programming Concepts (Slides include materials from The C Programming Language, 2nd edition, by Kernighan and Ritchie and from C: How to Program, 5th and 6th editions, by Deitel and Deitel) Recursion and Function Implementation

    2. Definition • Recursive Function:–a function that calls itself • Directly or indirectly • Each recursive call is made with a new, independent set of arguments • Previous calls are suspended • Allows very simple programs for very complex problems Recursion and Function Implementation

    3. Simplest Example int factorial(int x) { if (x <= 1) return 1; else return x * factorial (x-1); } // factorial Recursion and Function Implementation

    4. More Interesting ExampleTowers of Hanoi • Move stack of disks from one peg to another • Move one disk at a time • Larger disk may never be on top of smaller disk Recursion and Function Implementation

    5. #include <stdio.h> void move (int n, int a, int c, int b); int main() { int disks; printf ("How many disks?"); scanf ("%d", &disks); move (disks, 1, 3, 2); return 0; } // main /* PRE: n >= 0. Disks are arranged small to large on the pegs a, b, and c. At least n disks on peg a. No disk on b or c is smaller than the top n disks of a. POST: The n disks have been moved from a to c. Small to large order is preserved. Other disks on a, b, c are undisturbed. */ void move (int n, int a, int c, int b) { if (n > 0) { move (n-1, a, b, c); printf ("Move one disk from %d to %d\n", a, c); move (n-1, b, c, a); } // if (n > 0) return; } // move • Is pre-condition satisfied before this call to move? Tower of Hanoi Program Recursion and Function Implementation

    6. #include <stdio.h> void move (int n, int a, int c, int b); int main() { int disks; printf ("How many disks?"); scanf ("%d", &disks); move (disks, 1, 3, 2); return 0; } // main /* PRE: n >= 0. Disks are arranged small to large on the pegs a, b, and c. At least n disks on peg a. No disk on b or c is smaller than the top n disks of a. POST: The n disks have been moved from a to c. Small to large order is preserved. Other disks on a, b, c are undisturbed. */ void move (int n, int a, int c, int b) { if (n > 0) { move (n-1, a, b, c); printf ("Move one disk from %d to %d\n", a, c); move (n-1, b, c, a); } // if (n > 0) return; } // move • If pre-condition is satisfied here, is it still satisfied here? And here? Tower of Hanoi Program Recursion and Function Implementation

    7. #include <stdio.h> void move (int n, int a, int c, int b); int main() { int disks; printf ("How many disks?"); scanf ("%d", &disks); move (disks, 1, 3, 2); return 0; } // main /* PRE: n >= 0. Disks are arranged small to large on the pegs a, b, and c. At least n disks on peg a. No disk on b or c is smaller than the top n disks of a. POST: The n disks have been moved from a to c. Small to large order is preserved. Other disks on a, b, c are undisturbed. */ void move (int n, int a, int c, int b) { if (n > 0) { move (n-1, a, b, c); printf ("Move one disk from %d to %d\n", a, c); move (n-1, b, c, a); } // if (n > 0) return; } // move If pre-condition is true andif n = 1, does move satisfythe post-condition? Tower of Hanoi Program Can we reason that thisprogram correctly playsTower of Hanoi? Recursion and Function Implementation

    8. Why Recursion? • Are article of faith among CS students and faculty but … • … a surprise to non-CS students. • Some problems are too hard to solve without recursion • Most notably, the compiler! • Tower of Hanoi problem • Most problems involving linked lists and trees • (Later in the course) Recursion and Function Implementation

    9. Recursion vs. Iteration • Some simple recursive problems can be “unwound” into loops • But code becomes less compact, harder to follow! • Hard problems cannot easily be expressed in non-recursive code • Tower of Hanoi • Robots or avatars that “learn” • Advanced games Recursion and Function Implementation

    10. Personal Observation • From my own experience, programming languages, environments, and computer architectures that do not support recursion • … are usually not rich enough to support a diverse portfolio of applications • I.e., a wide variety of problems in many different disciplines Recursion and Function Implementation

    11. Questions? Recursion and Function Implementation

    12. Implementing Recursion — The Stack • Definition – The Stack • A last-in, first-out data structure provided by the operating system for each running program • For temporary storage of automatic variables, arguments, function results, and other stuff • I.e., the working storage for each, separate function call. Recursion and Function Implementation

    13. The Stack(continued) • Every single time a function is called, an area of the stack is reserved for that particular call. • Known as its activation record in compiler circles. Recursion and Function Implementation

    14. Recursion is so important… • … that all modern computer architectures specifically support it • Stack register • Instructions for manipulating The Stack • … most modern programming languages allow it • But not Fortran and not Cobol Recursion and Function Implementation

    15. Recursion in C • Parameters, results, and automatic variables allocated on the stack. • Allocated when function or compound statement is entered • Released when function or compound statement is exited • Values are not retained from one call to next (or among recursions) Recursion and Function Implementation

    16. Arguments and Results • Space for storing result is allocated by caller • On The Stack • Assigned by return statement of function • For use by caller • Arguments are values calculated by caller of function • Placed on The Stack by caller in locations set aside for the corresponding parameters • Function may assign new value to parameter, but … • …caller never looks at parameter/argument values again! • Arguments are removed when callee returns • Leaving only the result value for the caller Recursion and Function Implementation

    17. Typical Implementation of The Stack • Linear region of memory • Stack Pointer “growing” downward • Each time some information is pushed onto The Stack, pointer moves downward • Each time info is popped off of The Stack, pointer moves back upward Recursion and Function Implementation

    18. 0xFFFFFFFF stack (dynamically allocated) SP heap (dynamically allocated) address space static data program code (text) PC 0x00000000 Typical Memory for Running Program (Windows & Linux) Recursion and Function Implementation

    19. Heap to be discussed later in course 0xFFFFFFFF stack (dynamically allocated) SP heap (dynamically allocated) address space static data program code (text) PC 0x00000000 Typical Memory for Running Program (Windows & Linux) Recursion and Function Implementation

    20. How it works • Imagine the following program:– int factorial(int n){ … /* body of factorial function */ … } // factorial • Imagine also the caller:– int x = factorial(100); • What does compiled code look like? Recursion and Function Implementation

    21. Compiled code: the caller int x = factorial(100); • Provide integer-sized space on stack for result, so that calling function can find it • Evaluate the expression “100” and leave it on the stack (after result) • Put the current program counter somewhere so that factorial function can return to the right place in calling function • Transfer control to the called function Recursion and Function Implementation

    22. Compiled code: factorial function • Save the caller’s registers in a dedicated space in the activation record • Get the parameter n from the stack • Set aside some memory for local variables and intermediate results on the stack • Do whatever factorial was programmed to do • Put the result in the space allocated by the caller • Restore the caller’s registers • Transfer back to the program counter saved by the caller Recursion and Function Implementation

    23. 0xFFFFFFFF stack (dynamically allocated) SP heap (dynamically allocated) Memory address space static data program code (text) PC 0x00000000 Typical Address Space (Windows & Linux) Recursion and Function Implementation

    24. Note • Through the magic of operating systems, each running program has its own memory • Complete with stack & everything else • Called a process Windows, Linux, Unix, etc. Recursion and Function Implementation

    25. Note (continued) • Not necessarily true in small, embedded systems • Real-time & control systems • Mobile phone & PDA • Remote sensors, instrumentation, etc. • Multiple running programs share a memory • Each in own partition with own stack • Barriers to prevent each from corrupting others Recursion and Function Implementation

    26. 0x0000FFFF Process 3 stack stack stack Process 2 Physical memory Process 1 0x00000000 Shared Physical Memory OS Kernel Recursion and Function Implementation

    27. Questions? Recursion and Function Implementation

    28. The Stack(summary) • The stack gives each function call its own, private place to work • Separate from all other calls to same function • Separate from all calls to other functions • Place for automatic variables, parameters, results Recursion and Function Implementation

    29. The Stack(continued) • Originally intended to support recursion • Mostly for computer scientists • Compiler writers, etc. • Powerful enabling concept • Allows function to be shared among multiple running programs • Shared libraries • Concurrent activities within a process Recursion and Function Implementation

    30. Questions? Recursion and Function Implementation