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presents. Ethical Theories. By Larry Chonko, Ph.D. The University of Texas at Arlington. Ethical Theories. Ethical Principles Beneficence Least Harm Respect for Autonomy Justice. Ethical Theories. Forms of Ethical Theories

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presents

Ethical Theories

By Larry Chonko, Ph.D.The University of Texas at Arlington

ethical theories
Ethical Theories

Ethical Principles

  • Beneficence
  • Least Harm
  • Respect for Autonomy
  • Justice
ethical theories1
Ethical Theories

Forms of Ethical Theories

  • Deontology – people should adhere to their obligations and duties
  • Utilitarianism – the choice that yields the greatest benefit to the most people is ethically correct
  • Rights – rights established by society are protected and given the highest priority
  • Virtue – judges a person by his/her character rather than an action that may deviate from normal behavior
ethical theories2
Ethical Theories

SELECTED PRINCIPLES OF ETHICAL CONDUCT

  • KANT’S CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE: Act in a way that you believe is right and just for any other person in a similar situation.
  • CARR’S CONVENTIONALIST ETHIC: Bluff and take advantage of all legal opportunities and widespread practices and customs
  • THE DISCLOSURE RULE: Ask how it would feel to see the thinking and details of the decision disclosed to a wide audience
  • THE GOLDEN RULE: Look at the problem from the position of another party affected by the decision and try to determine what response the other person would expect as the most virtuous
ethical theories3
Ethical Theories

SELECTED PRINCIPLES OF ETHICAL CONDUCT

  • THE HEDONISTIC ETHIC: Do whatever you find to be in your own self-interest
  • MOORE’S INTUITION ETHIC: Go with your “gut” feeling or what you understand to be right in a given situation
  • SMITH’S MARKET ETHIC: Take selfish actions and be motivated by personal gains in business dealings
  • MACHIAVELLI’S MEANS-END ETHIC: Ask whether some overall good justifies any ethical transgression
  • NIETZSCHE/MARX MIGHT-EQUALS-RIGHT ETHIC: Seize what advantage you are strong enough to use without respect to ordinary social conventions and laws
ethical theories4
Ethical Theories

SELECTED PRINCIPLES OF ETHICAL CONDUCT

  • THE ORGANIZATION ETHIC: Ask whether actions are consistent with organizational goals and do what is good for the organization
  • GARRETT’S PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY: Do whatever you will if there is a proportional reason for doing so
  • THE PROTESTANT ETHIC: Do only that which can be explained before a committee of your peers
  • THE REVELATION ETHIC: Pray, mediate, or otherwise commune with a superior force or being
  • BENTHAM/MILL’S UTILITARIAN ETHIC: Determine whether the harm in an action is outweighed by the good