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  1. A Move Forward From Technical to Critical Science… a Rich History and Promising Future

  2. Technical Science Approach • Focus (Plihal, Laird, & Rehm, 1999) • How to questions of curriculum, individual and family problems • Seeks to objectify and reduce human problems into manageable sections • Find most efficient means of developing the technical skills to solve problems • Teacher-centered classroom • Students listen to lectures, memorize facts, master skills, take tests • Approach involves teaching students expert ways to do household tasks instead of addressing questions of meaning and value • Validity of knowledge only exists when proven by scientific research • Using objective definitions, observation, and measurement • Rejects validity of ALL approaches that cannot be reduced to technical scientific model, standards, and system of beliefs

  3. Critical Theory & Critical Science • Critical Theory • End result/ outcome of a process used to identify inconsistencies • Outcome—Improvement of human life (Gentzler, 1999) • Critical Science • Process, course of action taken by individuals, groups while examining present social structures (Carr & Kemmis, 1986) • A means to an end • What knowledge is of most worth? Why? What ought to be? • Seeks to prepare individuals, families to examine personal and social problems; take reasoned and justifiable action (Plihal, Laird, & Rehm, 1999)

  4. Critical Science Approach • Strength • Approach recognizes need for integration of multiple types of knowledge in order to best serve individuals and families • Process engaged in to get desired result • Unites science for observation (evidence) and philosophy for analysis and criticism (reason) (Yoo, 1999) • Result=improved living conditions for human family • Process of asking questions and finding answers • Helps students learn to think, reason, reflect, and take action through study of recurring, practical problems • Uniqueness comes from questions asked • Content develops in response to questions asked http://www.rednova.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=44522

  5. Critical Science Approach • Helps individuals gain • Personal freedom from internal constraints such biases, lack of skill or point of view • Social freedom from external constraints • Oppression • Exclusion • Abuse of power relations • Removing limitations of freedom and daily life involve the following processes: • Emancipation • Liberation • Empowerment • Transformation • Concerned with power relations—elite oppressing others by controlling knowledge, access to power, meanings, daily practices • Uncovering power imbalance involves finding out “what is” so “what could be” can be determined (Rehm, 1999) McGregor, 2003

  6. Critical Consciousness Slow realization that people do have power to change things that keep them down=increased self-consciousness Problem Posing Through telling personal stories and reading others—gain of the skill to name problem develops Self-reflection Figuring out “why you are doing what you do in your daily life” increases self-knowledge, leads to reframing of ideas and negative thoughts Social Critique Beliefs, attitudes, actions that contribute to subordination of most by a few (elite) Language of Critique McGregor, 2003

  7. Language of Possibility and Potential • Reframe thinking in order to see the many possibilities or alternatives • Achieved through personal voice • By seeing the potential, a realization that voice can be heard in larger discussions of what society could be like McGregor, 2003

  8. Language of Action • Dialogue • Involves talking, listening, sharing, perspective taking, questioning, responding, reframing, adapting, suggesting, challenging • Consensus Building • Through dialogue, individuals can learn from opposing views, contradictions of personal view • Leads to personal growth of imagination and multiple perspectives can be shared and assimilated • Taking Collective Action • Action that positive, cooperative, inclusive, and caring in nature • Individual’s worth, trust, and capabilities are nurtured (Rehm, 1999) McGregor, 2003

  9. Critical Science (Practical Problems) Initiative in FCS • 1976 Vocational Education Amendment • Identified parenting, nutrition, and consumer education as required subjects for funded FCS programs • Brown (1978) proposed different curriculum approach • Revolutionized thinking about FCS curriculum • Argued practical science curriculum rather than traditional technical orientation • Practical approach would help students learn to think, reflect, and take action through study of perennial, practical family problems • 1980’s • Movement lead to development of curriculum guides in Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Idaho http://www.rednova.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=44522

  10. Research • Valuable documents in establishing foundation for critical science in FCS • Brown (1978) first proposed critical science perspective in FCS curriculum • Brown & Paolucci (1979) gave more comprehensive view for FCS • Brown (1980) What is Home Economics Education? • Redick (1995) developed chapter on process-oriented curriculum • Including overview of development of FCS education, discussion of major curriculum, instructional issues in the field http://www.rednova.com/modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=44522

  11. ASCD Curriculum Handbook– Family and Consumer SciencesAssociation for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (1998). Family and consumer sciences: A chapter of the curriculum handbook. Alexandria, VA: Author. • Published by Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) • 1998, FCS professionals developed chapter which focused on the critical science perspective • Designed to Help • Administrators, state supervisors of FCS, principals, vocational directors adopt critical science approach to curriculum development • Chapter Includes • Historical foundations • Forces shaping curricula • Research that had impact of the profession • Philosophies and theoretical base of critical science perspective • Principles to guide practice

  12. Teacher Education YearbookFedje, C.G., & Johnson, J. (Eds.). (1999). Family and consumer science curriculum: Toward a critical science approach. Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGraw Hill. • 1999 Yearbook centered on critical science approach to curriculum development • Examines interconnection between theoretical concepts in critical science and practice of teaching and curriculum development • Highlights states use of critical science approach in curriculum development

  13. The Future • Families continue to be confronted by perennial problems and issues • Changing, diverse society requires methods/strategies to meet changing needs of families • Critical science approach encourages teachers to plan content that helps students arrive at solutions to issues and problems facing the family • Redick, et al. (1998) projected states would adopt critical science perspective as preferred curriculum approach

  14. References Brown, M. M. (1978). A conceptual scheme and decision-rules for the selection and organization of home economics curriculum content. Madison, WI: Home Economics Education, Department of Public Instruction. Brown, M. M. (1980). What is home economics education? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. Brown, M. M., & Paolucci, B. (1979). Home economics: A definition. Washington, DC: American Home Economics Association. Finch, C., & Crunkilton, J. (1979). Curriculum development in vocational and technical education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Glatthorn, A. A. (1995). Content of the curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Johnson, J., & Fedje, C. G. (Eds.). (1999). Family and consumer sciences curriculum: Toward a critical science approach. Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGraw Hill. Marsh, C. J., & Willis, G. (1999). C\urriculum alternative approaches, ongoing issues. Columbus, OH. Prentice Hall. Redick, S. S. (1995). The family and consumer sciences curriculum. In A.A. Glatthorn (Ed.), Content of the Curriculum (pp. 123-153). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Redick, S. S. et al. (1998). Family and consumer sciences curriculum guidelines. In Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (Author), Association for supervision and curriculum development curriculum handbook (pp. 1-120). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Curriculum. Thomas, R. (1998). Family and consumer sciences process-oriented curriculum: An essay. In S.S. Redick et al. (1998). Family and consumer sciences curriculum guidelines (pp. 21-35). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Curriculum. Thomas, R., Baum, S., Laster, J., & Fedje, C. (1999). Emerging practices: A view from three states. In J. Johnson and C. Fedje (Eds.), Family and consumer sciences curriculum: Toward a critical science approach (pp. 238-258). Peoria, IL: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.