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What you MUST know before learning database systems development. Why information systems?. Information age Change of Paradigm Bill Gates wealth Globalization Dramatic increase of global management Organizational Change Downsizing (less hierarchical) Less traditional middle management

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What you MUST know

before learning database systems development

why information systems
Why information systems?
  • Information age
    • Change of Paradigm
    • Bill Gates wealth
  • Globalization
    • Dramatic increase of global management
  • Organizational Change
    • Downsizing (less hierarchical)
    • Less traditional middle management
    • Knowledge asset management
  • Speed
    • Impossible without IT
why study database
Why study database?
  • Information Age
    • Unthinkable without data
    • About 1.8 zettabytes (1.8 trillion gigabytes) of data generated in 2011
    • And 50 times by 2020
    • Data size comparison
    • Data generated by Walmart, UPS, Amazon…..
    • Population of “” : 800 million active user
      • US: 310 million
why study database1
Why study database?
  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
    • Mandates strict reforms to improve financial disclosures from corporations and prevent accounting fraud.
    • Due to accounting frauds such as Enron, Tyco, and WorldCom in the early 2000s shook investor confidence in financial statements and required an overhaul of regulatory standards.  
why study database con t
Why study database? (con’t)

Implications for both public and private organizations:

Section 409 –

  • Requires disclosure to the public on a “rapid and current” basis of material changes in an organization’s financial condition.
  • impossible without fast, accurate, and responsive database systems
worldcom scandal
WorldCom scandal
  • Fierce competitors to AT&T and Sprint
  • Used to have:
    • 88,000 employees
    • 60,000 miles of telephone lines around the world
    • Revenue of $40 billion
  • Collapsed because of the accounting fraud
    • $11 billion
    • One of the biggest (second: Lehman Brothers, ENRON)
  • A main trigger
    • Simple: failure integration of four different billing DB
  • Kaiser: Northern, CA and Southern, CA
new denver airport
New Denver airport
  • Twice the size of Manhattan, NY
  • 10 times wider than London airport
  • Big enough to land three jets simultaneously-in bad weather
    • 3 parallel North-South runways, 2 parallel East-West runways, and room for a total of 12 runways.
  • Baggage Logistics information system
    • One of kind…
    • Expensive: $1.7 billion (original price in early 1990s)
    • Very large size….
    • The most advanced and sophisticated automated baggage handling system
s cale of the system
Scale of the system
  • 21 miles of steel track
    • Tearing like intelligent coal-mine cars
  • 4,000 independent "telecars" route and deliver luggage between the counters, gates and claim areas of 20 different airlines.
  • Size of the system
    • 100 computers are networked to one another and to 5,000 electric eyes
    • 400 radio receivers
    • 56 bar-code scanners orchestrates the safe and timely arrival of every valise and ski bag.
  • Scheduled to open Oct 1993
  • Delayed 16 months because of system glitches…one of the database problem:
    • DB problem: incorrect data (incorrect system program)
    • Garbage in, Garbage out
  • Original price: $1.7 billion
  • Final cost: more than $ 5 billion
stakeholders players in the systems game
Stakeholders: Players in the Systems Game
  • A stakeholder is any person who has an interest in an existing or proposed information system. Stakeholders can be technical or nontechnical workers. They may also include both internal and external workers.
    • System owners
    • System users
    • System designers
    • System builders
    • Systems analysts (project managers)
system owners
System Owners

System owners – an information system’s sponsor and executive advocate, usually responsible for funding the project of developing, operating, and maintaining the information system.

  • Top Management (CEO, CFO, CIO…)

Primary Concerns

- how much will the system cost?

- how much value or what benefits will the system return to the business?

system users
System Users

System users

– a “customer” who will use or is affected by a system on a regular basis

  • Primary concern: get the job done using the system
    • Internal users
      • Clerical and service workers, technical and professional staff, supervisors, middle managers, and executive managers
    • External users
      • Internet EC consumers, suppliers, partners…
system designers and system builders
System Designers and System Builders

System designer – a technical specialist who translates system users’ business requirements and constraints into technical solution.

  • DBAs, Network architects, web designers, security experts…

System builders – a technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by the system designers.

  • Programmers (applications, systems, and DB), network administrators, web masters..
systems analysts
Systems Analysts

Systems analyst – a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business.


  • Bridge (facilitator: next slide) between management and technical specialist
  • Understand both business and computing
  • Initiate change within an organization
  • Ultimately, a problem solver
skills needed by the systems analyst
Skills Needed by the Systems Analyst
  • Good interpersonal communication skills
    • Business writing class
    • Technical business skill class
  • Good interpersonal relation skills
  • Flexibility and adaptability
  • Working knowledge of (existing and emerging) IT
  • Computer programming experience and expertise
  • General business problem-solving skills
  • Character and ethics