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Enlightenment. Lesson 1: Philosophy in the Age of Reason Chapter 5.1. Objectives. Describe how scientific progress promoted trust in human reason. Explain how the social contract and separation of powers affected views on government Outline how new ideas affected society and the economy.

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enlightenment

Enlightenment

Lesson 1: Philosophy in the Age of Reason

Chapter 5.1

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe how scientific progress promoted trust in human reason.
  • Explain how the social contract and separation of powers affected views on government
  • Outline how new ideas affected society and the economy
big idea
Big Idea
  • Enlightenment thinkers tried to apply the law as of nature to human society. Their political ideas included the concepts of natural rights, separation of powers, checks and balances, and Freedom of thought. Their economic ideas included the policies of laissez faire and a free market.
warm up
Warm up
  • Please complete the “Do Now” activity on your daily notes sheet.
focus questions
Focus Questions
  • What is the role of government in our life?
  • How did government change throughout modern history?
government during the middle ages
Government during the Middle Ages
  • Absolutism
  • The “divine right of rule”
  • The feudal system
progress and reason
Progress and Reason
  • Scientific Revolution
    • 1500s & 1600s
  • Advancements in the 1700s
    • Joseph Priestley
    • Antoine Lavoisier
    • Edward Jenner- small pox
  • Natural Laws
  • Enlightenment
think pair share
Think-Pair-Share
  • How did the achievements of the Scientific Revolution contribute to the Enlightenment?
social contract
Social Contract
  • Hobbes
    • Leviathan
      • People are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish
    • Social contract
      • Gave up state of nature for an organized society
  • Locke
    • People are basically reasonable & moral
    • Natural Rights
      • Life, liberty, property
    • Two Treatises of Government
      • Govt to protect natural rights
      • People have the right to overthrow the govt
think pair share1
Think-Pair-Share
  • Who do you agree with more- Locke or Hobbes? Why.
separation of powers
Separation of Powers
  • Montesquieu
    • 1700s
    • Studied Euro govts
  • Spirit of Laws
    • 3 branches- Legislative, Executive, Judicial
      • Checks and balances
philosophes lovers of wisdom
Philosophes (“lovers of Wisdom”)
  • Voltaire
    • Francois-Marie Arouet
    • Targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats
    • Battled inequality, injustice and superstition
    • Freedom of speech
    • Exiled
  • Denis Diderot
  • 28-volume Encyclopedia
    • Govt, philosophy, religion
    • Articles by leading thinkers
    • Denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, urged edu
  • Critics
    • Govt- attack on public morals
    • Catholic Church
philosophes
Philosophes
  • Rousseau
    • Poor upbringing
    • People in their natural state are basically good
  • The Social Contract
    • Some controls needed, but minimal
      • freely elected govts
    • Community above individual
women
Women
  • Salon Activity
  • Women and Enlightenment
    • Limited rights
    • Excluded from Social Contract
      • Germaine de Stael
      • Catharine Macaulay
      • Mary Wollstonecraft
        • A Vindication of the Rights of Women
new economic thinking
New Economic Thinking
  • Physiocrats- focus on economic reports, looking at rational laws to define economic system
  • Laissez-Faire
    • Business operates w/little to no govt
  • Adam Smith
    • British economist
    • The Wealth of Nations
      • Manufacturing, trade, wages, profits, and econ growth linked to supply and demand
    • Govt duty to protect society, administer justice, provide public works
activity
Activity
  • Think of ways to remember the other philosophes. The cornier the better!!!
closure
Closure
  • How did the new economic thinking reflect Enlightenment?