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Introduction to Organization and Management

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  1. Introduction to OrganizationandManagement Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer Joke1977@hotmail.com 089-9912087

  2. The Characteristics of an Organization Has a Distinct Purposes Is Composed of People Has a Deliberate Structure

  3. Traditional Stable , inflexible Job focused Jobs define work Individual-oriented Permanent jobs Command-driven Contemporary Unstable , flexible Skills focused Tasks define work Team-oriented Temporary jobs Involvement driven The Changing Organization

  4. Contemporary Participative Customer oriented Diversity No time boundaries Lateral networks Work anywhere The Changing Organization Traditional • Directive • Rule-oriented • Homogeneity • 9-5 workdays • Hierarchies • Work on-site

  5. Top Managers Mid-Level Managers The Levels of an Organization First-Line Managers Operation Employees

  6. Inputs and Outputs Efficient Management Doing Things Rights Low Resource Waste Productivity Goals and Objectives Effective Management Doing The Right Things High Goal Attainment

  7. Planning Organizing Leading Controlling The Four Function of Management

  8. Mintzberg’s Management Roles Interpersonal Roles Decisional Roles Informational Roles

  9. Skills That Managers Need Conceptual Top Managers Human Middle Managers Technical Middle Managers

  10. The Environment The Open System Transformation -Management -Employees -Technology -Operation Outputs -Products -Service -Profits -Losses • Inputs • Materials • Capital • Labor • Data Feedback

  11. The Contingency Perspective Organization Size Task Technology Environment Uncertainty Individual Differences

  12. Organizational Type Organizational Level Is the Manager’s Job Universal ? Cross National Transferability Organizational Size

  13. Why Study Management ? • You should understand how organization are managed. • You will either manager or be managed.

  14. Theory and Conceptual Administration(B) Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer joke1977@hotmail.com 089-9912087

  15. Historical Background Of Management Theories 1 2 3 Early Adam Industrial Example Smith Revolution Egyptian Wealth Machine Pyramids of Nation Power Great Wall Division of Mass of China Labor Production

  16. Develop a science for each Select, train and develop element of work workers Taylor’s Four Principle of Management Cooperate with works Divide work and responsibility equally

  17. General Principle Management (Taylor’s) • Division of work • Authority and Responsibility • Discipline • Unity of Command • Unity of Direction • Subordination of Individual General Interest

  18. General Principle Management (Taylor’s) • Remuneration • Centralization • Scalar Chain • Order • Equity • Stability of Tenure of Personnel • Initiative • Esprit de Corps

  19. Henry Fayol Management Function ( POCCC) • Planning • Organizing • Commanding • Coordinating • Controlling

  20. Max Weber (Bureaucracy) • Division of Labour • Authority Hierarchy • Formal Selection • Formal Rules and Regulations • Impersonality • Career Orientation

  21. Maslow (Malow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory) Self-Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

  22. Theories of Leadership (Six Traits That Differentiate Leaders From Nonleaders) • Drive • Desire to lead • Honesty and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • Job-relevant knowledge

  23. Trend and Present Administration in the Future • Globalization • Workforce Diversity • Information Technology or IT • Continually Learning and Adaptive Org. • Total Quality Management or TQM

  24. Organizational Culture and Environment Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer Joke1977@hotmail.com 089-9912087

  25. What’s Cultures? Organization Changing? Organization Cultures Changing? Cultures Changing Rise Death Continue Process Normal Implementation Behavior Popularity Behavior Setting Extensively Behavior Cultures Build or Change Cultures Forster Popularity Change

  26. How Should We View The Role of Management? The Omnipotent View The Symbolic View The Synthesis View

  27. Dimensions of Organization • Innovation and Risk Taking • Attention to Detail • Outcome Orientation • People Orientation • Team Orientation • Aggressiveness • Stability • Non-Stability

  28. Size of The Age of The OrganizationOrganization Strong Culture Versus Weak Culture Intensity of Employee Organization Culture Turnover

  29. How Do Employees Learn About The Culture of an Organization? Stories Rituals Material Symbols Language

  30. GlobalizationManaging The Global Environment(Organization and Management) Songklot Phonpuak…Lecturer Joke1977@hotmail.com 089-9912087

  31. Companies With Over 60 Percent of Revenue From Non-US. Operation • Exxon __________________________________________________76.8 • Colgate-Palmolive ________________________________71.6 • Manpower ___________________________________________70.8 • Mobil __________________________________________________ 67.2 • Coca-Cola ____________________________________________67.1 • Avon Products _____________________________________ 65.3 • Digital Equipment _______________________________ 64.8 • Gillette _______________________________________________ 63.1 • IBM _____________________________________________________61.3 • Citicorp _______________________________________________ 60.6

  32. Three Attitudes Towards International Business Ethnocentric Polycentric Geocentric

  33. The Changing Business Environment Regional Trading Alliances European North American Association Union Free Tread of Southeast ( EU ) Agreement Asian Nations ( NAFTA ) ( ASEAN )

  34. Global Organization The Changing Business Environment Global Trading Alliances Multinational Transnational Borderless Corporations Corporations Organization ( MNC ) ( TNC )

  35. How Organizations Go International Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Export to Hire Foreign Licensing Foreign Agents or Franchising Countries Brokers Contract Joint Venture Foreign Foreign Managers Subsidiary

  36. Managing in A Foreign Country Legal-Political Environment Economic Environment Culture Environment

  37. Individualism Power Versus Distance Collectivism Hofsted’s Dimensions of National Culture Quantity Uncertainty Versus Avoidance Quality of Life

  38. Ability to adapt Technical Skills Spouse and Family Human relations Skills Desire to go Overseas Overseas Experience Knows host culture Academic standing Language Skills Knows home culture Criteria for Making GlobalEmployee Selection Decision

  39. Factors Affecting International Adjustment Pre-Assignment Adjustment Individual Training Experience Expectations Organization Selection Criteria and Mechanisms

  40. Factor Affecting International Adjustment In-Country Adjustment Individual Factors Job Factors Organization Culture Organization Socialization Nonworking Factors

  41. Decision Making : The Essence of the Managers’ Job Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer 089-9912087 Joke1977@hotmail.com

  42. The Decision-Making Process Identification of a Problem Identification of Decision Criteria Allocation of Weights to Criteria Development of Alternatives Analysis of Alternatives Selection of an Alternatives Implementation of the Alternatives Evaluation of Decision Effectiveness

  43. Planning • What are the organization’s long-term objective? • What strategies will best achieve those objective? - What should the organization’s short-term objectives be? - How difficult should individual goals be? Leading • How do I handle employees who appear to be low in motivation? • What is the most effective leadership style in a given situation? • How will a specific change affect worker productivity? - When is the right time to stimulate conflict? Decisions in the Management Function

  44. Organizing • How many employees should I have report directly to me? • How much centralization should there be in the organization? • How should jobs be designed? • When should the organization implement a different structure? Controlling • What activities in the organization need to be controlled? • How should those activities be controlled? • When is a performance deviation significant? • What type of management information system should the organization have? Decisions in the Management Function

  45. 3 Alternatives 2 Target of Alternative 1 Identification of a Problem 7 Decision 4 Objective Setting The Manager as Decision Maker 6 Non-objections 5 Objective Certainty

  46. Types of Problems and Decisions Well-Structured Problems and Programmed Decisions Poorly-Structured Problems and Non-programmed Decisions Integration

  47. High Low Rational Intuitive Tolerance for Ambiguity Way for Thinking Decision-Making Styles

  48. Decision-Making Biased and Errors Overconfidence Hindsight Immediate Gratification Self-Serving Anchoring Effect Sunk Costs Decision-Making Selective Perception Randomness Errors and Biases Confirmation Representation Framing Availability

  49. Foundations of Planning Songklot Phonphuak…Lecturer Joke1977@hotmail.com 089-9912087

  50. What’s Planning? - What’s To Be Done. - How It’s To Be Done. PLANNING… Formal Planning Informal Planning