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SS11 Exam Review. Section 1: History. Prohibition. A ban on alcohol sought by women in early 1900s. Alcohol was banned in both Canada and the USA for a number of years. Suffragist.

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  • A ban on alcohol sought by women in early 1900s. Alcohol was banned in both Canada and the USA for a number of years.


  • A woman who campaigned for the right to vote. Achieved success in Canada and the USA. Also concerned with affects of alcohol, poverty, and child labour.


  • People who support imperialism or the policy of one nation acquiring, controlling or dominating another


  • People who have strong attachment to their culture or nation.


  • The power to govern oneself and make one’s own decisions. (ex. Canada gained more autonomy during the 20s and 30s)

Head tax
Head Tax

  • The fee that Chinese immigrants had to pay after 1885 in order to enter Canada.

Indian act
Indian Act

  • An Act created to regulate the lives of the First Nations of Canada.


  • Land set aside by the government for the use of First Nations.

Residential schools
Residential Schools

  • Government authorized schools, run by the churches, in which Aboriginal children lived apart from their families and were educated in Canadian culture.


  • Adoption of the customs and language of another cultural group so that the original culture disappears. (Canadian government’s original goal for the First Nations)

Hydroelectric power
Hydroelectric Power

  • Electricity produced from the energy of falling water. BC produces a lot of hydroelectric power.


  • Change in production systems to large-scale mechanized factories. (Canada in early 1900s)

Trade union
Trade Union

  • A group of workers who unite to achieve common goals in discussion with ownership and management of businesses and industries.


  • A decline in the economy , resulting in lower levels of employment and productivity.

Sir robert borden
Sir Robert Borden

  • Prime Minister during WWI. Brought in conscription.


  • The policy of one nation acquiring, controlling or dominating another country or region. (Great Britain was famous for it with its Empire and pre-WWI Germany wanted to do more of it) (A cause of WWI)


  • A nation’s policy of enlisting, training, equipping and maintaining armed forces ready for war. (a cause of WWI)

Triple alliance
Triple Alliance

  • The alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy prior to WWI

Triple entente
Triple Entente

  • The alliance of France, Britain and Russia before WWI.


  • Devotion to, and support of, one’s culture and nation, sometimes resulting in the promotion of independence. ( a cause of WWI)

Black hand
Black Hand

  • Terrorist group that wanted to free Bosnia from Austria-Hungary. One member (GavriloPrincip helped start WWI by assassinating Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife)

War measures act
War Measures Act

  • An Act that gives the federal government emergency powers during wartime, including the right to detain people without laying charges.

Valcartier camp
Valcartier Camp

  • Camp in Quebec where the first 32,000 Canadian troops trained before being sent to Europe for WWI


  • Making a profit by raising prices on needed goods or producing poor quality goods. (occurred in Canada during WWI and WWII)

Enemy aliens
Enemy Aliens

  • A national living in a country that is at war with his/her homeland. (ex Germans, Italians and Austro-Hungarians living in Canada during WWI.

Internment camps
Internment Camps

  • A government run camp where people who are considered a threat are detained. (ex enemy aliens)

Schlieffen plan
Schlieffen Plan

  • Germany’s plan to stage a 2 front war with France in the west and Russia in the east at the start of WWI. (it failed)

No man s land
No Man’s Land

  • The area between the trenches of the opposing forces in WWI.

Western front
Western Front

  • The area of fighting in western Europe during WWI, characterized by trench warfare and inconclusive battle and heavy casualties on both sides.

War of attrition
War of Attrition

  • A military strategy based upon exhausting the enemy’s manpower and resources before yours are exhausted usually involving great losses on both sides.


  • Those injured, killed, captured or missing action.

Battle of ypres
Battle of Ypres

  • Canada’s first major battle of WWI in April, 1915. Canadian troops were subjected to the first major gas attack by the Germans and they fought back bravely.

Battle of the somme
Battle of the Somme

  • Major battle in July, 1916 that had some of the greatest casualty rates in WWI. Canada fought bravely in leading some important assaults despite the Somme being a failure overall.

Battle of vimy ridge
Battle of Vimy Ridge

  • Probably Canada’s finest moment in our military history. Our stunning victory at Vimy in April, 1917 is looked upon as a historic event in the development of Canada and was a source of tremendous pride for Canadians at that time.


  • Another victory, under very difficult and muddy conditions, for the Canadian army in October, 1917.

Women on the western front
Women on the Western Front

  • More than 2800 women served overseas during WWI, mostly as nurses. Many were killed by artillery or gas.


  • Aerial duels between aircraft.

Flying ace
Flying Ace

  • A fighter pilot who has shot down 5 enemy aircraft. (ex Billy Bishop, the Red Baron)


  • A group of ships traveling together protected by an armed force of ships. (better protection against U-Boats)

Merchant marine
Merchant Marine

  • Civilian ships and sailors that transported food, weapons and munitions across the Atlantic Ocean. (very important in the success of the Allies)

Victory bonds
Victory Bonds

  • Bonds issued by the Canadian government to help pay for the war. (bought by Canadians)

Honour rationing
Honour Rationing

  • A civilian effort to consume less and conserve supplies on the home front (that could be used to win the war)

Income tax and corporate tax
Income tax and corporate tax

  • Taxes on income and businesses brought in “temporarily” to help pay for WWI.


  • Information, usually produced by governments, presented in such a way as to inspire and spread particular beliefs or opinions (can be true or false)

Halifax explosion
Halifax Explosion

  • On Dec 6th, 1917 two ships collided in Halifax Harbour causing a massive explosion that levelled much of the city killing 2000 and injuring 9000 more.


  • Forced enlistment in the armed forces of all fit men of certain ages. (would cause a major crisis in Canada during both world wars)

Military services act 1917
Military Services Act 1917

  • Act that forced all men, aged 20-45, to sign up for the armed forces.

Conscientious objector
Conscientious Objector

  • A person who opposes war for religious or moral reasons. (they could avoid being conscripted)

Military voters act
Military Voters Act

  • Act that allowed man and women serving overseas to vote.

Wartime elections act
Wartime Elections Act

  • Act that gave the vote to women related to servicemen, but cancelled the vote for conscientious objectors and immigrants from enemy countries. First time any women voted in federal election.

Khaki election 1917
Khaki Election 1917

  • Name given to federal election in 1917 because of PM Borden’s efforts to win the military vote (and bring in conscription)

Hundred days campaign
Hundred Days Campaign

  • The final Allied offensive along the Western Front during the last 3 months of WWI. (was successful at ending the war)


  • An agreement between warring parties to end the hostilities (no more shooting).

Paris peace conference
Paris Peace Conference

  • A meeting in Paris in 1919 to discuss the terms of the peace agreement after WWI. Canada fought for, and obtained a seat at the conference.

Treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles

  • Main treaty that ended WWI. Imposed strict sanctions on Germany.

War guilt clause
War Guilt Clause

  • An article (clause) in the Treaty of Versailles that made Germany take the blame for WWI.

War reparations
War Reparations

  • Financial compensation that WWI and WWII losers (Germany) had to pay to winning countries. Huge amount of $$.


  • The rise in the price of goods and services that increases the cost of living and triggers demand for higher wages.


  • Taxes on imported goods.

Winnipeg general strike
Winnipeg General Strike

  • Massive strike by workers in Winnipeg in 1919 over wages and working conditions. Violently put down (on Bloody Saturday) and many union leaders arrested or deported.

Collective bargaining
Collective Bargaining

  • Negotiation of a contract between unions and management regarding things like wages and working conditions.

Persons case
Persons Case

  • A court case in 1929 where the Famous Five (5 women) fought to have women declared “persons” under Canadian law.

Group of seven
Group of Seven

  • Famous Canadian painting group from the 1920s well known for painting Canadian landscapes using oil.

Canadian constitution
Canadian Constitution

  • The document that describes the powers and responsibilities of the government and its parts, and the rights of the citizens. (was the BNA Act)

Aboriginal title
Aboriginal Title

  • Claims by Aboriginal people to lands that their ancestors inhabited. (the courts usually agree with this)


  • A concern for the affairs of one’s own region over those of one’s country. (Can be a problem in a huge country like Canada)

Free trade
Free Trade

  • Trade between countries without tariffs, export subsidies or government intervention.

Old age pension act
Old Age Pension Act

  • Act passed in 1927 to provide social assistance ($) to people over 70. Has been changed since then.

Chanak crisis
Chanak Crisis

  • The Canadian government’s refusal in 1922 to support British troops in defending the Turkish port of Chanak. The first time the Can. Govt did not support the British military. (gaining independence)

Halibut treaty
Halibut Treaty

  • A 1923 treaty between Canada and the USA to protect halibut on the Pacific Coast. The first treaty negotiated and signed independently by the Can. Govt. (more independence)

King byng crisis
King-Byng Crisis

  • A situation that occurred in 1926 when Gov. General Byng refused a request by PM King to dissolve Parliament and call an election. This was the last time a Gov. General ignored the wishes on an elected Prime Minister. (more independence)

Imperial conference and balfour report
Imperial Conference and Balfour Report

  • A meeting of the leaders of the countries in the British Empire. In 1926 Lord Balfour’s report acknowledged that Canada was an independent nation in the British Commonwealth. (more independence)

Statute of westminster
Statute of Westminster

  • The law that changed the British Empire into the British Commonwealth, with all countries in it being equal to each other. (more independence)


  • A severe economic downturn in the global economy in the 1930s.

Supply and demand
Supply and demand

  • The quantity of a product and the market’s desire for that product. The price of the product varies based upon supply and demand. (ex High demand = higher prices)


  • A period of economic growth and expansion.


  • The period after a recession during which the value of goods and services rise.


  • More goods being produced than sold, leads to a decrease in production, which leads to a decrease in employment. (cause of Great Depression)


  • Taxes on imported goods. (another cause of Great Depression as a number of countries increased tariffs)


  • A system of tariffs on imported goods to protect your own industries. (opposite of free trade)


  • Buying shares (stocks) “on margin” (loan) with the expectation that the value of the shares will increase enough to pay back the loan and make a profit. When the opposite happened in a BIG way in 1929 you had a lot of broke people and banks and the beginning of the Great Depression.

Black tuesday
Black Tuesday

  • October 29, 1929, when the Stock Market collapsed helping start the Great Depression.

Pogey or the dole
Pogey or “the Dole”

  • Going on welfare. People given limited $$ and people tried to avoid it if possible.

Prairie farming during the depression
Prairie Farming During the Depression

  • No rain for years, invasions of grasshoppers and large debts forced many farmers to abandon their farms.


  • When prices of goods and services go down, like during the Great Depression.

Richard bennett
Richard Bennett

  • Prime Minister during the first 5 years of the Great Depression. He and his Conservative Party failed to deal with problems caused by the Depression.

On to ottawa trek
On-to-Ottawa Trek

  • A 1935 rail trip from Vancouver to Ottawa (stopped in Regina) by unemployed men to protest conditions in employment relief camps.

Regina riot
Regina Riot

  • A riot that occurred when police attempted to remove On-to-Ottawa trekkers from a stadium in Regina.

New deal
New Deal

  • A series of programs to help the unemployed and elderly in the USA during the 1930s. PM Bennett talked about doing the same in Canada, but he lost the 1935 election.

Laissez faire leave it alone
Laissez-faire (leave it alone)

  • Where there is very little government intervention in the economy. Capitalism and free enterprise dominate.

Welfare state
Welfare State

  • A state in which the government actively looks after the well-being of its citizens.

Co operative commonwealth federation ccf
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)

  • Canada’s first socialist party founded in 1932 in response to the Great Depression. Believed government should control the economy so that everyone would benefit equally.

Regina manifesto
Regina Manifesto

  • The party platform (or ideas) of the CCF Party that opposed the free-market economy and supported public (govt) ownership of key industries.


  • An economic system in which the production and distribution of goods are owned privately or by shareholders in corporations.

Quebec nationalism
Quebec Nationalism

  • A movement advocating for the protection and development of Quebecois culture and language.

Equalization payment
Equalization Payment

  • A federal transfer of funds from richer to poorer provinces.

Totalitarian state
Totalitarian State

  • A dictatorship in which the government uses intimidation, violence and propaganda to rule all aspects of the social and political life of its citizens. (Nazi Germany)


  • A ruler with unrestricted power, without any democratic restrictions. (ex Hitler)


  • Members of the Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party. They extreme nationalists who took power in 1933 and controlled every aspect of German life


  • The Nazi imprisonment and murder of 6 million Jews and 5 million other peoples during WWII

Anti semitism

  • Discrimination or hostility toward Jewish people

Policy of appeasement
Policy of Appeasement

  • Giving in to an aggressors demands in the hopes that no more demands will be made. (failed with Hitler before WWII)


  • The policy of remaining apart from the affairs of other countries. (ex The USA before Pearl Harbor brought them into WWII)


  • A person displaced from his or her home and territory by war and other acts of aggression.


  • The act of sending someone back to his or her native land.

British commonwealth air training plan bcatp
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP)

  • A program to train pilots and aircrew in Canada during WWII. It produced half of all the aircrew and is the largest air training plan in history.

Total war
Total War

  • The mobilization of the entire resources of a nation for war.


  • Countries fighting against Germany in WWII. Included Britain, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and after 1941, the USA and the USSR.

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  • Alliance between Germany, Italy and Japan during WWII.


  • French port town from which a massive Allied evacuation took place in May, 1940 after Germany conquered France. Nearly 340,000 Allied troops escaped to England.


  • German war tactic of quick, surprise attacks using tanks and fighter planes in WWII. Hitler hoped to avoid a war of attrition like in WWI.

Battle of britain
Battle of Britain

  • An air campaign launched in 1940 by the Royal Air Force to stop the Germans from achieving air superiority. Canadians fought in this air battle.

Operation barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa

  • Germany’s unsuccessful invasion of the Soviet Union. The Soviets joined the Allies and the Nazis suffered huge losses.

Pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor

  • The Japanese bombing of the US naval base in Hawaii in December 1941. Brought the power of the US into the war.

Battle of hong kong
Battle of Hong Kong

  • Japan’s attack on the British colony of Hong Kong, in which there were heavy Canadian losses. Many Canadians were taken as Prisoners of War for the rest of WWII.

Battle of the atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic

  • The struggle between the Allies and the Axis powers to control the Allies’ shipping route across the Atlantic during WWII.

Bomber command
Bomber Command

  • The section of the Royal Air Force that directed strategic bombing of Germany.


  • Small, fast warships built in Canada to help protect convoys in the Atlantic Ocean.

Dieppe raid
Dieppe Raid

  • A 1942 raid by mostly Canadian troops to steal an enigma machine and code books from the German Navy headquarters in Dieppe. It was a failure with heavy casualties.

Italian campaign
Italian Campaign

  • In 1943 the Allied forces (including Canada) battled to recapture Europe through Sicily and Italy. Ortona was Canada’s most famous battle in the Italian Campaign.

D day

  • June 6, 1944. The day Allied forces, including Canada invaded France. The biggest Allied invasion of WWII.

Juno beach
Juno Beach

  • The 9km stretch of beach in Normandy, France where the Canadian troops landed on D-Day.

Liberation of the netherlands
Liberation of the Netherlands

  • The difficult, but successful liberation of the Netherlands by Canadian troops at the end of WWII. (Their monarch still sends us 100,000 tulips every year to say thanks)

National resources mobilization act
National Resources Mobilization Act

  • Act passed in 1940 enabling the government to do whatever was necessary for the war effort. It was amended in 1942 to allow conscription.

Manhattan project
Manhattan Project

  • The code name during WWII for the American plan to develop the first atomic bomb. Canada helped in this process and supplied the uranium for the bombs.


  • The systematic extermination of a religious or ethnic group. (ex Holocaust or Rwanda)

Final solution
Final Solution

  • The Nazis plan to systematically kill all European Jews.

None is too many
“None is too many”

  • Statement by Canadian official at the Evian Conference about how many Jews we could take in before WWII. Shows how strong the anti-Semitic feelings were in Canada.

War brides
War Brides

  • Foreign women who married Canadian troops serving overseas and then immigrated to Canada after the war.

War crimes
War Crimes

  • The killing, torture, and hostage-taking of civilian populations during war.

Hiroshima and nagasaki
Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  • Japanese cities that had atomic bombs dropped on them to end WWII.

Baby boom
Baby Boom

  • The increase in the birth rate that occurred after the Second World War.

Massey commission
Massey Commission

  • A body set up by the federal government to study the state of Canadian culture.

Canada council for the arts
Canada Council for the Arts

  • The group that funds Canadian artists and supports the arts in Canada.

Canadian radio television and telecommunication commission crtc
Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunication Commission (CRTC)

  • The agency that regulates the amount of foreign material broadcast over the airwaves in Canada and imposes rules requiring Canadian content to promote Canadian artists.

Referendum (CRTC)

  • Asking the people of Canada to vote on a political question (ex conscription in WWII)

Mackenzie king
Mackenzie King (CRTC)

  • Longest serving Prime Minister who led in the 20s, 30s and 40s. Led us through 2nd half of the Depression, WWII and helped Canada gain full independence from Britain.

Megaprojects (CRTC)

  • Large-scale construction projects that require huge capital investment. (ex Trans-Canada Highway)

Cold war
Cold War (CRTC)

  • A period lasting from 1945 to 1989 when there was tension and hostility between the communist Soviet Union and its allies and the capitalist USA and its allies. Both had huge nuclear weapons stockpiles which made it a scary period of time.

Superpowers (CRTC)

  • The USA and Soviet Union, when both were building up powerful arsenals of weapons of mass destruction as deterrents against aggression.

Middle power
Middle Power (CRTC)

  • A nation that is not a superpower, but has international influence. (ex Canada)

North atlantic treaty organization nato
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (CRTC)

  • The mutual defence organization set up to protect several Western European countries, the USA and Canada against possible aggression by the Soviet Union after WWII.

Warsaw pact
Warsaw Pact (CRTC)

  • The post-WWII military alliance involving the Soviet Union and the Soviet-block countries like Poland, East Germany and Hungary.

North american aerospace defence command norad
North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD) (CRTC)

  • Defence agreement signed in 1958 between Canada and the USA to protect them against a possible attack by the Soviet Union.

Distant early warning dew line
Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line (CRTC)

  • Radar stations in northern Canada set up between 1958 and 1960 to detect Soviet activity over the North Pole.

United nations
United Nations (CRTC)

  • An organization established in 1945 to bring peace and security to the world.

  • Includes UNICEF, Security Council, General Assembly, World Health Organization and other agencies.

Avro arrow
Avro Arrow (CRTC)

  • Fighter jet built in Canada, but program was scrapped near completion.

Korean war
Korean War (CRTC)

  • Communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950. The UN sent a UN force to help South Korea. This force was mainly American, but 26,000 Canadians fought in this war. Fighting ended in 1953, but no treaty was signed and hostilities continue to this day.

Suez crisis
Suez Crisis (CRTC)

  • When Egypt took control of the Suez Canal in 1956, France, Britain and Egypt invaded. The Soviet Union offered military aid to Egypt and the situation looked bad. Canadian Lester Pearson managed to convince the UN to send a UN force to bring hostilities to a peaceful end. It worked, Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize and Canada’s reputation as peacekeeper was born.

Canadian bill of rights
Canadian Bill of Rights (CRTC)

  • 1960 document that set out the rights and freedoms of all Canadians.

Multiculturalism (CRTC)

  • An official government policy that encouraged Canada’s various ethnic groups to express their cultures. Programs were designed to make all residents feel at home in Canada. Multicultural Act was adopted in 1988.

White paper of 1969
White Paper of 1969 (CRTC)

  • The government report proposing dramatic changes to the lives of Aboriginal peoples, including the elimination of the Indian Act.

Medical care act
Medical Care Act (CRTC)

  • An Act passed by Parliament in 1966 that provided free access to doctor services for Canadians.

Quiet revolution
Quiet Revolution (CRTC)

  • A period of rapid change and reform that modernized Quebec society during the years 1960-1966.

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  • Front de liberation du Quebec. A revolutionary (terrorist) movement founded to work for the an independent, socialist Quebec. Unleashed a wave of fear from 1963 to 1970 in Quebec.

Parti quebecois
Parti (CRTC) Quebecois

  • The Quebec provincial party that wants Quebec separation from Canada. Formed by Rene Levesque.

Royal commission on bilingualism and biculturalism
Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (CRTC)

  • A commission created by the federal government to find ways of enhancing and promoting bilingualism in Canada.

Official languages act
Official Languages Act (CRTC)

  • Act that states that French and English are Canada’s official languages and that all federal institutions (ex courts) must provide services in French and English.

October crisis
October Crisis (CRTC)

  • Period in October, 1970 when the FLQ kidnapped a British diplomat and a Quebec cabinet minister and made numerous demands. The Trudeau government responded with bringing in the War Measures Act for the first time during a time of peace. The FLQ members were eventually caught, but not before killing Labour Minister Pierre Laporte.

Bill 22
Bill 22 (CRTC)

  • Provincial legislation that made French the sole official language of Quebec.

Bill 101
Bill 101 (CRTC)

  • Called the Charter of the French Language. It strengthened the position of the French language in Quebec. (language of work, outdoor signs, education of immigrants children)

Bomarc missiles
Bomarc (CRTC) Missiles

  • Nuclear missiles that Canada agreed to accept from the USA during the Cold War, led to a rift in Canada/USA relations.

Western alienation
Western Alienation (CRTC)

  • The feeling on the part of Western Canada that the federal government favours Canada Central in its policies. (can lead to Western based political parties being formed)

Embargo (CRTC)

When a government stops certain goods from shipped in or out of a country. (often to punish a country for certain behaviors)

Vietnam war
Vietnam War (CRTC)

  • War in the 60s and 70s between North Vietnam and South Vietnam (really the USA) where the USA wanted to stop communism from spreading to the south. North Vietnam won the war when the Americans withdrew and Vietnam is still communist today. Some Americans (called draft resisters) fled to Canada to avoid fighting in Vietnam.

Cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis (CRTC)

  • Scary event in October, 1962 triggered when the USA discovered that the Soviet Union was placing nuclear weapons in Cuba. For about 2 weeks the world held its breath while the 2 superpowers nearly started a nuclear war. Luckily the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba if the US removed their missiles in Turkey.

Arms race
Arms Race (CRTC)

  • The continual build-up of stronger and deadlier nuclear weapons by the Soviet Union and the USA during the Cold War.

Tied aid
Tied Aid (CRTC)

  • Aid given to a foreign country with conditions attached. (ex they had to use the aid $$ to buy Canadian goods)

Mutually assured destruction mad
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) (CRTC)

  • Belief that says that a country will not attack a another with nuclear weapons because it will be destroyed by those weapons. This kept the 2 superpowers (USA and Soviet Union) from starting a war with each other because neither side would win.

Self government
Self-government (CRTC)

  • The right of a colony or cultural group to define the structure, laws and policies that govern its affairs. (First Nations in Canada want self-government)

Land claims
Land Claims (CRTC)

  • Aboriginal groups want their ancestral lands returned to them. Major issue in British Columbia as Aboriginal groups claim nearly the entire province.

Pierre trudeau
Pierre Trudeau (CRTC)

  • Prime Minister during the 70s and 80s. As Cabinet Minister and PM he changed laws to allow homosexuality, abortion, divorce and helped bring the Constitution home to Canada along with the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Sovereignty association
Sovereignty-association (CRTC)

  • A proposal by Quebec nationalists that Quebec have political independence, yet retain close economic ties or association with Canada.

Distinct society
Distinct Society (CRTC)

  • A phrase that refers to the recognition of the unique nature of Quebec within Canada. Has also been used to say that Quebec should have special powers and privileges to protect its language and culture.

Amending formula
Amending Formula (CRTC)

  • The process by which changes can be made to the Canadian Constitution. (7 provinces and 50% of the population of Canada must agree to the changes)

Quebec referendum 1 1980
Quebec Referendum # 1 1980 (CRTC)

  • Quebecers voted against separating from Canada 40% to 60%.

Meech lake accord
Meech (CRTC) Lake Accord

  • A package of constitutional amendments that would define Quebec as a distinct society within Canada. Put together by PM Mulroney and the 10 premiers at a cabin on Meech Lake in 1987.

  • Attempt to get Quebec to sign the constitution after it did not in 1982. Did not get approved by all 10 provinces so the agreement died.

Charlottetown accord
Charlottetown Accord (CRTC)

  • 2nd attempt at getting Quebec to sign the constitution that would recognize them as a distinct society. Also died when Canadians voted it down in a referendum in 1992.

  • Angers many in Quebec.

Brain mulroney
Brain Mulroney (CRTC)

  • Prime Minister in the 80s and 90s. Brought in N.A. Free Trade Agreement and tried to get Quebec to sign onto the constitution with the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords.

Bloc quebecois
Bloc Quebecois (CRTC)

  • A federal party dedicated to Quebec separation from Canada.

Quebec referendum 2 1995
Quebec Referendum # 2 1995 (CRTC)

  • Quebec nearly separates after a close vote that was won by the No side with a 50.6% to 49.4% for the Yes side.

  • Canadians were shocked it was this close to breaking Canada in half.

Clarity act
Clarity Act (CRTC)

  • Federal government passes a law that requires separatist referendums (votes) to pass with a “clear majority” and not 50% plus 1 like in the 1995 Quebec referendum.

Free trade agreement
Free Trade Agreement (CRTC)

  • Trade agreement in 1989 between the USA and Canada to allow goods to cross the border tariff-free.

Globalization (CRTC)

  • A process by which the regions of the world are becoming economically and culturally interconnected. (can have positive and negative effects on countries)

National debt
National Debt (CRTC)

  • The amount of money owed by the federal government. Most of the debt is owed to Canadians who hold Government of Canada savings bonds and treasury bills. The government has to use part of its budget to pay the interest on the debt.

North american free trade agreement nafta
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (CRTC)

  • Agreement in 1992 between the USA, Canada and Mexico to create a free trade zone among the countries.

Rwandan genocide
Rwandan Genocide (CRTC)

  • Close to 1 million Rwandans (mostly Tutsis) killed in a matter of months by other Rwandans (Hutus). The world and the United Nations failed the people of Rwanda with its weak response to this genocide.

Persian gulf war 1990
Persian Gulf War 1990 (CRTC)

  • When Iraq invaded oil-rich Kuwait the UN authorized a multinational force to stop Iraq. This was mostly an American force, but Canada also contributed various military hardware and hundreds of military personal.

Civil war in yugoslavia 1995 98
Civil War in Yugoslavia 1995-98 (CRTC)

  • Tensions among the republics of Yugoslavia broke into ethnic conflict. United Nations peacekeeping missions, including Canadian forces, were sent in, but they were unable to control the situation. NATO forces had to launch attacks of its own and the warring factions eventually agreed to a ceasefire. Yugoslavia split into numerous countries and the UN’s failure to keep the peace brought doubts on its effectiveness.

Democracy (CRTC)

  • A system of government in which people freely choose in elections who will govern them, the principles and ideals of such a government, including free speech and the rule of law.

Pressure group
Pressure Group (CRTC)

  • Organized group of people with common interests who attempt to pressure political decision makers.

Lobbyist (CRTC)

  • A person hired to represent the interests of a pressure group by influencing policy decisions of the government.

Civil disobedience
Civil Disobedience (CRTC)

  • The act of intentionally breaking the law while protesting against laws one considers unjust.

Civil servant
Civil Servant (CRTC)

  • Someone who works for a government department.

Ideology (CRTC)

  • Political and social principles or beliefs.

Communism (CRTC)

  • A social and economic theory that property, production and distribution of goods and services should be owned by the public, and the labour force organized for the benefit of all members of society. With the rise in communism, after the Russian Revolution in 1917, governments began to worry. (Red Scare)

Socialism (CRTC)

  • A political and economic system in which the means of production and distribution in a country are publically owned and controlled for the benefit of a society. (Left on the political spectrum)

Liberalism (CRTC)

  • A political philosophy supporting individual freedoms and governmental protection of civil liberties.

Conservatism (CRTC)

  • A political philosophy supporting traditional values and institutions, economic freedoms and opposing sudden change. (ex same sex marriage)

Authoritarian (CRTC)

  • A form of government in which one individual or small group holds all the power and directs the lives of citizens.

Fascism (CRTC)

  • An authoritarian system of government that exercises complete power, suppresses opposition, often through use of force and encourages nationalism and racism. (ex Nazi Germany)

Political spectrum
Political Spectrum (CRTC)

  • A linear visual used to illustrate political ideologies, from left to right. (L=NDP, R=Conservative)

Party platform
Party Platform (CRTC)

  • A list of priorities and a plan for governing published by a political party.

Patronage (CRTC)

  • A favour, often a government position (like a Senate position) given in return for political support. (You scratch my back, I scratch yours)

Partisan (CRTC)

  • Loyal to a party or a cause. (US politics are very partisan)

Senate (CRTC)

  • The 2nd legislative body in Parliament consisting of appointed members whose role is to give sober second thought to the passage of bills. There are 105 Senators.

Cabinet (CRTC)

  • The group of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister who decide government policy. Each cabinet minister is in charge of one government department. (ex- Health or Finance Minister)

House of commons
House of Commons (CRTC)

  • The first legislative body of Parliament whose members are elected. There are 308 MPs in the H of C.

Civil service
Civil Service (CRTC)

  • The body of people who work in government administration.

Office of the prime minister
Office of the Prime Minister (CRTC)

  • The PM’s political advisors and staff. Appointed and very powerful.

Cabinet solidarity
Cabinet Solidarity (CRTC)

  • The custom that Cabinet members must not show disagreement with government policies. (or get kicked out of the Cabinet)

Surplus (CRTC)

  • When a government actually spends less than it takes in. (almost never happens)

Deficit (CRTC)

  • The amount the money a government owes when it spends more than it takes in. (Normal) Yearly deficits added together gives you the total DEBT that a government has.

Order in council
Order-in-Council (CRTC)

  • An order signed by the Governor General on the advice of the PM and Cabinet. Allows laws and regulations to be passed without a parliamentary vote. (Fast, but not democratic)

Royal assent
Royal Assent (CRTC)

  • The final stage a bill must complete before it is passed into law. The Governor General (or L. Governor in the provinces) signs the bill.

Party whip
Party Whip (CRTC)

  • A member of the legislature assigned the specific role of ensuring all members of his or her party are present in the legislature to support party interests. (to toe the party line)

Party discipline
Party Discipline (CRTC)

  • All party members voting the same, as one voice. (Whipped vote)

Free vote
Free Vote (CRTC)

  • All members all voting according to their own conscience. (not enough of these)

Private member s bill
Private Member’s Bill (CRTC)

  • A bill introduced into the legislature by a member of the legislature who is not a member of the Cabinet. (often fail to get passed)

Backbenchers (CRTC)

  • Members of a legislature (ex House of Commons) who are not Cabinet ministers, party leaders or opposition critics. (they seat in the back rows and have little power)

Majority government
Majority Government (CRTC)

  • A government in which the ruling party has more than half of the total number of seats in the legislature. (they have power and can pass any bills they want)

Minority government
Minority Government (CRTC)

  • A government in which the ruling party has fewer than half of the seats in the legislature. (must use compromise to get things done and don’t last as long)

Coalition (CRTC)

  • A formal alliance of political parties. (ex. The NDP and Liberals govern together)

Prorogue parliament
Prorogue Parliament (CRTC)

  • To suspend Parliament for a period of time upon the PM’s request to the Governor General. Can be used by a PM to avoid a scandal or to kill certain legislation that is being voted upon in the House of Commons.

Dissolve parliament
Dissolve Parliament (CRTC)

  • When the Governor General dissolves Parliament after the PM or Premier requests it, that parliament is now over and an election is called. Can happen if a minority government loses a vote in the House.

Electoral district riding constituency
Electoral District, Riding, Constituency (CRTC)

  • A geographical area of a given size or population used in an election. Will elect one MP or MLA to represent them.

Constituent (CRTC)

  • A voter in a riding.

Chief electoral officer
Chief Electoral Officer (CRTC)

  • An independent officer of Parliament responsible for federal elections.

Voter apathy
Voter Apathy (CRTC)

  • Reluctance or lack of interest in voting. Voting numbers continue to drop in Canada. (possible solutions: Mandatory voting and electronic voting)

Nomination (CRTC)

  • Choosing a candidate to run for office. (Each party chooses its candidates)

Enumeration (CRTC)

  • Compiling a list of voters by the current government.

Campaigning (CRTC)

  • Parties and candidates seek to increase public awareness and support for their ideas and to raise money.

Balloting (CRTC)

  • Voting. Can be before election day, but most vote on election day at a voting station.

Tabulating (CRTC)

  • Counting the votes. Usually done by machines these days.

Pollsters (CRTC)

  • People who conduct public opinion polls to see how much support leaders or political parties have.

By election
By-election (CRTC)

  • An election held in a riding to fill a vacancy.

First past the post fptp
First Past the Post (FPTP) (CRTC)

  • An electoral (vote counting) system in which the candidate who has the most votes wins. (Results can be unfair with more majority governments as small parties don’t do well, more “wasted votes, but is a simple system to understand and count). This is what we have federally and provincially in Canada.

Single transferable vote stv
Single-Transferable Vote (STV) (CRTC)

  • An electoral (vote counting) system in which parties gain seats by the proportion of votes won in larger electoral districts. (better for smaller parties, more minority governments, is more confusing for voters and counters). BC almost adopted this system in 2009.

Universal declaration of human rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (CRTC)

  • The United Nations outline of the rights to which all human beings are entitled. (1948)

Canadian charter of rights and freedoms
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (CRTC)

  • The bill identifying human rights that are guaranteed to everyone in Canada. Enacted in 1982 and embedded in the Constitution of Canada. (big thanks to PM Pierre Trudeau for the Charter)

Notwithstanding clause
Notwithstanding Clause (CRTC)

  • A clause in the Canadian Constitution that enables a Parliament or the legislature of a province to pass a law that contravenes the Charter.

Democratic rights
Democratic Rights (CRTC)

  • Charter rights to participate in a democratic society including voting in elections and running for office.

Language rights
Language Rights (CRTC)

  • Charter rights to receive government services and to be educated in either French or English.

Fundamental freedoms
Fundamental Freedoms (CRTC)

  • Freedoms in the Charter that guarantee citizens are free to worship and believe what they wish, to express their opinions freely, to associate with whomever they wish and to gather together peacefully with others.

Mobility rights
Mobility Rights (CRTC)

  • Charter rights that guarantee people the ability to move around or in and out of the country.

Equality rights
Equality Rights (CRTC)

  • Charter rights that guarantee people will not be discriminated against based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age, or mental or physical disability.

Affirmative action
Affirmative Action (CRTC)

  • Programs that are designed to help disadvantaged individuals or groups achieve equity.

Minority rights
Minority Rights (CRTC)

  • Legal rights to ensure that specific groups which are vulnerable or disadvantaged are protected and able to achieve equality.

Legal rights
Legal Rights (CRTC)

  • Charter rights that guarantee people will be treated fairly by the legal system, including knowing why they were arrested, having access to a lawyer and a speedy trial.

Employment equity
Employment Equity (CRTC)

  • Policies that ensure certain groups are given an advantage by employers, in particular women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples and visible minorities.

Supreme court
Supreme Court (CRTC)

  • Highest court in Canada with 9 judges (3 from Quebec). Often decides cases involving the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Precedent (CRTC)

  • A legal decision that serves as a rule for future cases.

Demography (CRTC)

  • The study of population numbers, distribution, trends and issues.

Census (CRTC)

  • The process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data about all people living in a particular area. (ex Canada)

Developed country
Developed Country (CRTC)

  • A country with a highly developed economy and infrastructure and high living standards. (richer countries)

Developing countries
Developing Countries (CRTC)

  • A country with a less sophisticated economy and lower standards of living than developed countries. May have extensive poverty. (used to be called Third World countries)

Birth rate
Birth Rate (CRTC)

  • The number of births per 1000 people in a country in a given year.

Death rate
Death Rate (CRTC)

  • The number of deaths per 1000 people in a country in a given year.

Immigration rate
Immigration rate (CRTC)

  • The number of new arrivals in a country in a given year per 1000 people.

Emigration rate
Emigration Rate (CRTC)

  • The number of people leaving a country in a given year per 1000 people.

Natural increase in population
Natural Increase (in population) (CRTC)

  • The rate at which a population increases (or decreases) in a year, calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate.

Exponential growth rate
Exponential Growth rate (CRTC)

  • Rapid population growth, as each generation doubles in size.

Rule of 70
Rule of 70 (CRTC)

  • The time it takes a country to double its population by dividing 70 by the growth rate. (ex 70/3.5% growth would be a doubling time of only 20 years!)

Doubling time
Doubling Time (CRTC)

  • The number of years it takes a country to double its population at its current growth rate.

Net migration
Net Migration (CRTC)

  • The difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants a country has. (Immigrants-emigrants in one year.)

Migrant (CRTC)

  • A person who moves from one region to another. (often for work)

Population growth rate
Population Growth Rate (CRTC)

  • The rate at which a country’s population increases or decreases, calculated by adding the natural increase and net migration.

  • (PGR = Births-Deaths + Immigration- Emigration)

Life expectancy
Life Expectancy (CRTC)

  • The average number of years an individual is expected to live. (Canada is around 80)

Demographic transition model
Demographic Transition Model (CRTC)

  • A model (graph) that shows changes in a population’s birth and death rates and population growth. (Stage 1: Caveman days: High birth rates, high death rates, Little population growth, Stage 5: Today in Japan: Extremely low birth rate, low death rates, Population decrease)

Urbanization (CRTC)

  • The move of people from farms to cities where jobs are available.

Mortality (CRTC)

  • Deaths in a population.

Population pyramid
Population Pyramid (CRTC)

  • A bar graph that shows male and female populations back to back at age intervals of 5 years.

Age cohort
Age Cohort (CRTC)

  • An age group in a population. (ex number of people between 10 and 14 years old)

Dependency ratio
Dependency Ratio (CRTC)

  • The proportion of the population (children and those over 65) that is being supported by the working age group. (Canada’s ratio is getting worse as the Baby Boomers begin to retire)

Population problems
Population Problems (CRTC)

  • Too much population growth

  • Aging population.

  • Too many men from abortion of females

  • Massive dependency ratio from huge losses of middle aged to HIV

Population distribution
Population Distribution (CRTC)

  • The pattern of where people live in an area.

  • Canada’s distribution pattern in within 100km of the USA border.

Population density
Population Density (CRTC)

  • The number of people living in a given area. (calculating population divided by its area)

  • Canada has a very low density because of its huge size.

Nutritional density
Nutritional Density (CRTC)

  • A measure of how much nutrition in calories can be produced from a certain area. Fertile soil and adequate temperatures and rainfall will create an area with a higher nutritional density. (The Prairies: High, The North: Low)

Human development index
Human Development Index (CRTC)

  • The UN’s index to rank countries based upon their standards of living. (index uses life expectancy, years of education and income)

  • Canada is currently ranked 11th.

Literacy rate
Literacy Rate (CRTC)

  • The percentage of a population that is able to read and write.

Gdp per capita
GDP per capita (CRTC)

  • Gross domestic product, or the total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year, per person. (similar to average income per person)

Non governmental organizations ngos
Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) (CRTC)

  • Non-profit local, national or international groups that work independently of government on issues such as health, the environment or human rights. (ex Doctors Without Borders)

Infrastructure (CRTC)

  • Structures such as roads, railways, power grids and communication links that are basic to the functioning of a modern economy. (also includes buildings and hospitals)

Heavily indebted poor countries
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (CRTC)

  • Countries at he low end of the UN Human Development Index that are in debt to developed countries.

Millennium development goals
Millennium Development Goals (CRTC)

  • 8 goals developed by the United Nations in 2000 to close the gap in living standards between developed and developing countries.

Malnutrition (CRTC)

  • Poor, or lack of nourishment. (could be a diet low in protein or calories)

Multinational corporations
Multinational Corporations (CRTC)

  • Companies that do business in more than one country.

World bank
World Bank (CRTC)

  • An international group of 5 financial institutions that provide financial and technical help to developing countries.

International monetary fund imf
International Monetary Fund (IMF) (CRTC)

  • An international organization designed to promote economic stability and development.

Commodities (CRTC)

  • Goods or services that are bought or sold.

Subsistence farming
Subsistence Farming (CRTC)

  • A form of farming in which the crops are used to feed the farmer and his family, with little or nothing left over to sell or trade.

Desertification (CRTC)

  • The spread of desert-like conditions in an area, often caused by human activity.

Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic Cleansing (CRTC)

  • The elimination of one ethnic group in an area by another ethnic group.

Bonded labour
Bonded Labour (CRTC)

  • Paying off a loan with labour rather than money, bonded labourers often work for very little pay and their labour is worth more than the original debt.

Subsidies (CRTC)

  • Grants from the government, intended to help people or businesses. Developed countries often help some of their industries with subsidies.

Malaria (CRTC)

  • A deadly, infectious disease common in tropical climates and transmitted to humans by mosquitoes.

World health organization who
World Health Organization (WHO) (CRTC)

  • A U.N. agency that coordinates international health activities and helps governments improve health services.

Canadian international development agency cida
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) (CRTC)

  • Canada’s leading development agency for assistance to the developing world.

Deforestation (CRTC)

  • The process of destroying a forest and replacing it with something else.

Global warming
Global warming (CRTC)

  • The observed and projected increase in the earth’s average temperature due to the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. Will have many effects on climate, agriculture, water levels, etc.

Carrying capacity
Carrying Capacity (CRTC)

  • The largest population that an environment can support. (ex humans on earth or bears in a forest)

Permafrost (CRTC)

  • Subsoil that remains frozen all year long.

Acid rain
Acid Rain (CRTC)

  • Any form of precipitation that is high in sulphuric and nitric acids as a result of pollution in the air. Causes severe damage to forests, lakes and rivers and the marine life in them.

Carbon dioxide emissions
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (CRTC)

  • CO2 emissions caused by burning fossil fuels, the largest contributor to global warming.

Kyoto accord protocol
Kyoto Accord/Protocol (CRTC)

  • An international agreement that sets binding targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions; the average is 5% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Largely ignored by Canada.

Herbicides (CRTC)

  • Substances used to kill plants. (especially weeds)

Pesticides (CRTC)

  • Substances used to kill pests.

Sustainable development
Sustainable Development (CRTC)

  • A way to maintain economic growth without damaging the environment.

Groundwater (CRTC)

  • Water beneath the Earth’s surface in underground stream and other forms. Important for farming and drinking water supplies.

Aquifer (CRTC)

  • An underground layer of rock, gravel, etc from which water can be drawn for wells and which is a source of springs.

Surface water
Surface Water (CRTC)

  • Water that is readily available on Earth’s surface in streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands and oceans.

Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Gases (CRTC)

  • The gases, like CO2 and methane that are causing global warming.

Carbon sink
Carbon Sink (CRTC)

  • A reservoir that can absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, including forests, peat and oceans.

Carbon footprint
Carbon Footprint (CRTC)

  • The total amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted over the full cycle of a product or service. Can also be used to show the emissions created by a person or country through their activities.

Carbon credit
Carbon Credit (CRTC)

  • If an organization or country produces more greenhouse gases than it is allowed it can purchase a credit from an organization or country that is below its target emission levels.

Ultraviolet radiation
Ultraviolet Radiation (CRTC)

  • Invisible rays from the sun that can cause skin cancer.

Ozone layer
Ozone Layer (CRTC)

  • Thin layer of ozone in the atmosphere 15 to 30km above the earth; the ozone layer filters the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. The layer has been thinning because of CFC gases and has holes in it.

Cfcs chlorofluorocarbons
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) (CRTC)

  • Chemicals used in coolants, solvents and aerosol cans that damage the ozone layer.

Montreal protocol
Montreal Protocol (CRTC)

  • International agreement signed in 1987 to phase out the ozone-depleting chemicals CFCs. Has been fairly successful.

Meltwater (CRTC)

  • Melted snow or ice, including ice from glaciers.

Poverty (CRTC)

  • The state of being extremely poor. Many causes and negative effects of poverty.