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Chapter 2 Land. Announcements? IN AFS tonight 5 pm, CL 167 Nick Haunert, Eagle Creek Reservoir Fish. Objectives:. Describe climate based on climate diagrams Explain how climate controls geographic distribution of biomes based on: Temperature extremes

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chapter 2 land
Chapter 2 Land
  • Announcements?
  • IN AFS tonight
    • 5 pm, CL 167 Nick Haunert, Eagle Creek Reservoir Fish

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

objectives
Objectives:
  • Describe climate based on climate diagrams
  • Explain how climate controls geographic distribution of biomes based on:
    • Temperature extremes
    • Temperature and precipitation seasonality
  • Match biomes to their geographic locations
  • Describe soil characteristics that influence plant species distribution within biomes

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

chapter concepts
Chapter Concepts
  • Uneven heating of earth’s surface by sun and tilt of earth’s axis, combine to produce predictable latitudinal variation in climate

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide4

Chapter Concepts

  • Geographic distribution of terrestrial biomes closely corresponds to variations in climate, especially temperature and precipitation

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

introduction
Introduction
  • Janzen studied tropical dry forests in Costa Rica for restoration efforts
    • Guanacaste tree (E. cyclocarpum)

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide6

Introduction

  • Janzen studied tropical dry forests in Costa Rica for restoration efforts.
    • Guanacaste tree (E. cyclocarpum)
      • No current dependable dispersers; trees produce massive numbers of fruits

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide7

Introduction

  • Janzen studied tropical dry forests in Costa Rica for restoration efforts.
    • Guanacaste tree (E. cyclocarpum)
      • No current dependable dispersers; trees produce massive numbers of fruits.
        • Last native dispersers extinct 10,000 years ago (sloths, camels).
          • Cattle and horses (exotics) dispersers.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

natural history info is important
Natural history info isimportant!

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

mineral composition
Mineral composition
  • Nutrient availability
  • Toxic substances (metals)
  • pH Solubility of nutrients / toxic metals

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

soil texture
Soil Texture
  • Relative amounts of gravel, sand, silt, clay
    • Silt & Clay
      • Water retention
      • Nutrient retention and availability
    • Gravel & Sand
      • Aeration (oxygen for roots)
  • Organic matter has beneficial influence on water/nutrient availability AND aeration

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

texture aeration and soil water
Texture, Aeration, and Soil Water

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

soil foundation of terrestrial biomes
Soil : Foundation of Terrestrial Biomes
  • Soil: Complex mixture of living and non-living material.
    • Classification based on vertical layering (soil horizons).
      • O Horizon
      • A Horizon
      • B Horizon
      • C Horizon

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

soil horizons
Soil Horizons

O: Organic Layer freshly fallen organic material – most superficial layer.

Fig. 2.3

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide16

Soil Horizons

O: Organic Layer freshly fallen organic material – most superficial layer.

A: Mixture of minerals, clay, silt and sand.

Fig. 2.3

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide17

Soil Horizons

O: Organic Layer freshly fallen organic material – most superficial layer.

A: Mixture of minerals, clay, silt and sand.

B: Clay, humus, and other materials leached from A horizon – often contains plant roots.

Fig. 2.3

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide18

Fig. 2.3

Soil Horizons

  • O: Organic Layer freshly fallen organic material – most superficial layer.
  • A: Mixture of minerals, clay, silt and sand.
  • B: Clay, humus, and other materials leached from A horizon – often contains plant roots.
  • C: Weathered parent material.
  • Soil profile = snapshot of soil structure in constant state of flux.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

drainage
Drainage
  • Water retention & Aeration
    • Topography Run-off
      • Flat vs. Sloped
      • Upper vs. Lower Slope
      • Convex vs. Concave
    • Impervious soil layers
    • Infiltration
    • Soil texture

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

soils influence local distribution of plants
Soils influence local distribution of plants
  • Texture: water, nutrients
  • Parent rock: pH, nutrients, toxic metals
  • Organics: water, nutrients
  • pH: nutrient availability, solubility of metals
  • Drainage: aeration of roots, solubility of metals
  • Plants add organics, influence weathering

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide22

Climate

  • Temperature and precipitation regime that is typical for a specific location or region:
    • Average temp. and precipitation
    • Temp. extremes (especially minimum)
    • Seasonality of temp. and /or precipitation

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide23

Factors That Control Regional Climate

  • Latitude(affects solar radiation)
  • Direction of prevailing winds
    • From ocean or from land (moist vs. dry)
    • From tropical or polar (warm vs. cold)
    • Rain shadow of mountains
  • Proximity to large water bodies
  • Elevation

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

climate variability

Climate variability

Large-scale patterns

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

large scale patterns of climatic variation temp atmospheric circulation and precip
Large Scale Patterns of Climatic Variation:Temp., Atmospheric Circulation, and Precip.
  • Spherical shape, tilt of earth’s axis:
    • uneven heating of earth’s surface.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

Fig 2.5

slide26

Drives air circulation patterns and consequently precipitation patterns.

      • Warm, moist air rises.
      • Cools, Condenses, and falls as rain.
      • Cooler, dry air falls back to surface.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

Fig 2.5

slide27

Rainforests at equator.

  • Major Deserts at 30o N and S.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

Fig 2.5

temp atmospheric circulation and precip
Temp., Atmospheric Circulation, and Precip.
  • Coriolis Effect =
    • winds clockwise in N hemisphere; counterclockwise in S hemisphere.

Fig 2.5

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

climate diagrams

Fig 2.7

Climate Diagrams
  • Summarize various env. variables for area.
    • Allows quick comparison between areas for vegetative growth predictions.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide32

Fig 2.8

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide33

Fig 2.8

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

terrestrial biomes
Terrestrial Biomes
  • Biomes: distinguished by plants – associated with particular climates

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide35

Biome

  • A major geographic region characterized by a distinctive assemblage of life forms.
    • Defined by dominant plant life forms on land.
    • Defined by dominant plants or animals in sea.
  • Terrestrial biomes generally the result of large-scale climate patterns.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

natural history and geography of biomes
Natural History and Geography of Biomes
  • Main factors determining biomes are:
    • Temperature and Precipitation

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

tropical rainforests
Tropical Rainforests
  • Within 10o lat. of equator
  • Little temp variation
  • Annual rainfall 2,000 – 4,000 mm
    • Heavy rainfall leaches soil nutrients
  • Organisms add vertical dimension
  • Staple foods + medicines for human pop’s – increasingly exploited

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

tropical dry forest
Tropical Dry Forest
  • 10o – 25o latitude
  • More seasonal than tropical rainforest
  • Soils richer in nutrients, but erosion
  • Shares many animal and plant spp. w/ tropical rainforests
  • Heavily settled by humans – extensive clearing for ag

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide42

Fig 2.14

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

tropical savanna
Tropical Savanna
  • N / S of Dry Forests
  • Alternate between wet / dry seasons
    • Drought w/ dry season = dry conditions; lightning-caused wildfires.
  • Soils low water permeability.
    • Saturated soils keeps trees out.
  • Increasing pressure to produce livestock.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide44

Fig 2.16

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

desert
Desert
  • 30o N and 30o S
  • ~ 20% of earth’s land surface
  • Water loss > precip. most of year
  • Soil usually extremely low in organics
  • Plant cover sparse to absent
  • Animal abundance low; biodiversity may be relatively high
    • Strong behavioral adaptations
  • Human intrusion increasing.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide46

Fig 2.19

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide47

Warm Desert

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide48

Cold Desert

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

temperate woodland and shrubland
Temperate Woodland and Shrubland
  • All continents except Antarctica
  • Cool and moist in fall, winter, and spring, can be hot / dry in summer
  • Fragile soils w/ moderate fertility
  • Trees and shrubs typically evergreen
  • Fire-resistant plants due to fire regime
  • Long history of human intrusion

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide50

Fig 2.22

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

temperate grassland
Temperate Grassland
  • Extremely widespread
  • Annual rainfall 300 – 1,000 mm
  • Periodic droughts
  • Soils extremely nutrient rich / deep
  • Dominated by herbaceous vegetation
  • Large roaming ungulates
    • Bison vs. cattle

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide52

Fig 2.25

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide53

Tall Grass Prairie

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide54

Mixed Grass Prairie

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide55

Short Grass Prairie

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide56

Why No Trees In Chaparral or Grasslands ???

Drought-free growing season too short

Not enough time to accumulate energy to produce large woody stem.

Seasonal precipitation causes Fire Climate

Frequent fires more likely to kill trees

than to kill shrubs and grasses.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

temperate forest
Temperate Forest
  • 40o and 50o latitude
  • Rainfall averages 650 – 3,000 mm
  • Fertile soils
    • Long growing seasons = deciduous plants
    • Short growing seasons = conifers
  • Biomass production can be very high
  • Many major human population centers

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide59

Fig 2.28

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

boreal forest taiga
Boreal Forest (Taiga)
  • N. hemisphere
    • 11% of earth’s land
  • Thin, acidic soils low in fertility
  • Dominated by evergreen conifers
  • High animal density
  • Historically, low levels of human intrusion

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide62

Fig 2.31

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

tundra
Tundra
  • Most of land N of Arctic Circle
    • Cool + dry w/ short summers
      • 200-600mm precip.
    • Low decomposition rates
    • Substantial numbers of native mammals
    • Human intrusion historically low, increasing as resources become scarce

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide65

Fig 2.34

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

slide66

Biomes of North America

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.

summary
Summary
  • Uneven heating of earth’s surface drives global precipitation patterns.
  • Distribution of terrestrial biomes corresponds to variation in climate.
    • Temperature
    • Precipitation
  • Within a single biome (climate region), soil characteristics influence the distribution of plant species, which in turn influences the distribution of other species.

Molles: Ecology 2nd Ed.