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Tools and Machines. Prehistory Takeover throughout the 18 th Century 19 th Century Julie Johnson. Tool vs. Machine. Tool A device that provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task. (Wikipedia) 5 basic tools: lever, wedge, screw, pulley, and inclined plane.

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tools and machines

Tools and Machines


Takeover throughout the 18th Century

19th Century

Julie Johnson

tool vs machine
Tool vs. Machine


  • A device that provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task. (Wikipedia)
  • 5 basic tools: lever, wedge, screw, pulley, and inclined plane
tool vs machine1
Tool vs. Machine


  • A machine is any mechanical or organic device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. (energy in for work out) (Wikipedia)
  • Components of a Machine: Combination of the 5 basic tools
prehistory myth
Prehistory – Myth
  • Athena
    • Workshop on Mt. Olympus
    • Original inventor of all mechanical arts
    • Known for inventing the chariot
    • Athena was senior partner to Hephaestus which “means the goddess who removes from sight”
prehistory myth1
Prehistory - Myth
  • Minerva
    • Roman goddess of handicrafts, known for inventing the cart
    • First to make iron weapons
    • Specifically credited with inventing the distaff, needle, weaving, olive “mills” and the technique of making olive oil
prehistory myth2
Prehistory - Myth
  • Brigit
    • Celtic Triple Goddess before becoming an Irish saint
    • Required her bishops to be practicing goldsmiths
  • Tsenabonpil (Melanesia), Miti-Miti (Siberia), and Sarasvati (India)
    • Examples from primitive groups who credit women ancestors with giving people “all knowledge”
the early tools
The Early Tools
  • Prehistory of Mechanics
    • 5 primary machines
      • Lever
      • Wedge
      • Screw
      • Pulley
      • Inclined Plane
    • Wheel and Axle
the early tools lever
The Early Tools - Lever
  • Lever is made of 3 parts: the weight, fulcrum, and power point.
    • 3 types of levers based on where the 3 components are
  • Earliest form of the lever is the digging stick
the early tools wedge
The Early Tools - Wedge
  • A wedge is used to separate two objects, or portions of objects, through the application of force, perpendicular to the inclined surfaces.
  • Used for splitting trees, breaking masses of ore, lifting weights, and hafting stone tools
  • Examples –knives, axes, nails, looms
the early tools inclined plane
The Early Tools – Inclined Plane
  • The inclined plane permits one to overcome a large resistance by applying a relatively small force through a longer distance than the load is to be raised.
  • Since women were the burden bearers they are more likely to have invented the inclined plane
the early tools screw
The Early Tools - Screw
  • A screw is used to translate torque into linear force. It can also be defined as an inclined plane wrapped around a shaft.
  • Mayan culture has a screw-top ceramic jar
    • Pottery making was predominantly or exclusively women’s work in 80 out of 105 societies
the early tools pulley
The Early Tools - Pulley
  • Pulleys are usually used in sets designed to reduce the amount of force needed to lift a load.
  • Amount of work is the same with or without pulleys
    • Vertically or horizontally
    • “dead-eye” pulley used rope wrapped around a tree
wheel and axle
Wheel and Axle
  • Rotary Motion
    • Replaced back and forth motion
  • Fly-wheel
  • Sister Tabitha Babbitt
    • Invented the circular saw in 1810
wheel and axle1
Wheel and Axle
  • Sindhi women and the rotary churn
  • Meso-American culture
  • Rollers
    • Women Eskimos
    • Malta’s Temples
primate ethology
Primate Ethology
  • Chimps used natural hammers when cracking nuts in Ivory Coast, Africa
    • Coula nut: easily use a rock on the ground or eat in the “food tree”
    • Hard-shelled Panda nut
  • Equal number ate the easy way
  • Very few male chimps ate in the trees or ate the Panda nut.
takeover myth and history
Takeover – Myth and History
  • Semiramis
    • 3 different Middle Eastern queens
    • Sammuramat, Naqi’a, and Nitokris
  • Sammuramat
    • Assyrian Queen (ruled 810-738 BCE)
    • War-like accomplishments
    • Most likely the leader in her son’s wars
    • Invented or improved siege engines
    • Capitalized on the chastity belt brought from Near East
takeover myth and history1
Takeover – Myth and History
  • Naqi’a (ruled 5 generations later)
    • Husband destroyed Babylon
    • Large-flood control reservoir and flood walls
    • Built mighty fortification wall, bridge across the Euphrates, two palaces, reservoir outside the city, and a temple
  • Nitokris (Naqi’a in Herodotus)
    • Legend of the subterranean hall, flooding it, and drowning the men who murdered her husband
    • Used a new kind of arch when building the third pyramid of Giza
  • Semiramis, Naqi’a, and Nitokris ruled in their own rights
takeover myth and history2
Takeover – Myth and History
  • Hypatia of Alexandria
    • Very beautiful and educated
    • Professor of astronomy, math, philosophy, and mechanics
    • Inventions include:
      • Astrolabe
      • Method to distil water
      • Instrument to measure water
      • Hydroscope or hydrometer
    • Brutally murdered by Christian fanatics
      • Symbolizes the end of ancient science
takeover the printing press
Takeover – The Printing Press
  • Did women invent the printing press?
    • Arguable
  • 3 major improvements
    • Wood Engraving
      • 15th Century, Isabella Cunio and her twin brother
    • Syllable Type
      • 19th Century, unknown woman
    • Problem with perfect registry
      • 19th Century, Helen Bruneau Van Vechten
  • Religion
    • Men were in charge/owned women including their inventions and patents
  • Domesticating Women
    • Loss of interaction with the environment
    • Lack of education
    • Lack of time
    • Lack of money
  • Marx View
    • Men controlled resources (women’s time)
tools of the ancient world
Tools of the Ancient World
  • Egypt
    • Level
    • Square
    • Scale
    • Mallet
tools of the ancient world1
Tools of the Ancient World
  • Egypt
    • Chisel
    • Sketch
    • Pigment
    • Boning Rods
tools of the ancient world2
Tools of the Ancient World
  • China
    • Foundry
    • Hydraulics and Irrigation
    • Two Man Silk Loom
the mill
The Mill
  • New Process Millstone Flour Mill, 1878
  • Water Powered Mills
    • Vitruvian Mechanism
      • Rock to agitate the hopper to create an automatic feed
      • Vertical versus horizontal blade alignment in water
      • Gear ratios
medieval catapult
Medieval Catapult
  • Could bring Castles down
  • Hurl projectiles great distances
  • Assembled on site
  • Trebuchet and ballista
leonardo davincci
Leonardo DaVincci
  • Calculating machine
    • Each complete turn changed a wheel
    • 13 wheels
  • Other Machines
    • Emergency Bridge
    • Grindstone with Sieve
landmark 19th century machines
Landmark 19th Century Machines
  • McCormick Reaper
    • Woman nailed shears on a board and wired them so one wire opened them and the other closed them
    • Revolutionize the agriculture industry
  • Small Electric Motor
    • Emily Goss Davenport tore her wedding dress to wind the silk around the coils of an electro magnet
    • Are vital to household appliances
landmark 19th century machines1
Landmark 19th Century Machines
  • Burden Horseshoe Machine
    • Feminists of the 19th and 20th Centuries confidently claim that this machine was invented by a woman, but there are no names.
    • Cut the cost of horseshoes, improved horse drawn traveling
landmark 19th century machines2
Landmark 19th Century Machines
  • Sewing Machine
    • Helen Augusta Blanchard – zigzag stitch
    • Nina H Piffard and Eva J. Hall – self-threading needle
  • Dishwasher
    • Josephine G. Cochran – first commercial dishwasher
landmark 19th century machines3
Landmark 19th Century Machines
  • Washing Machine
    • Martha H. Sanderson – Washing fluid
    • Margaret Plunkett Colvin – Triumph Rotary Washer
  • Typewriter
    • Lizzy Streshley – Machine for the blind
    • Anna M. Rothert – Upper case treadle attachment
landmark 19th century machines4
Landmark 19th Century Machines
  • Electrical
    • Mary Riggins – Railway crossing gate
    • Elizabeth E. Bell – Telephone mouthpiece
  • Domestic Labor Saving
    • Nancy Graham – 2 stove patents
    • Sarah B. Stearns – Improved carpet cleaner
  • Industrial and Manufacturing
    • Mary Dixon Kies – straw weaving machine
    • Mary Jane Montgomery – improved apparatus for punching corrugated metal
landmark 19th century machines5
Landmark 19th Century Machines
  • Office Machines
    • Ellie N. Sperry – Check punch
    • Mary E. Winter – Adding machine
  • Power Generation and Engines
    • Maria Beasley – Steam generator
    • Margaret Knight – Rotary factory-driving engines
  • Transportation
    • Annie H. Chilton – Combination horse detacher and brake
    • Sarah P. Mather – Submarine telescope and lamp
landmark 19th century machines6
Landmark 19th Century Machines
  • Key Women Inventers
    • Mlle Crepin – Band saw in 1846
    • Mary Jane Montgomery
      • Improved war vessel, improvement for

locomotive wheels, bridge

    • Harriet Ruth Tracey – 16 patents
      • Elevators, sewing machines, fire escape, stove
    • Maria E. Beasley – 14 patents
      • Barrel making machines, Barrel-setting-up machine, steam generator, anti-derailment device