Unit 11
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Unit 11. Imperatives. Another verbal mood in Greek is the Imperative mood. Imperative mood expresses commands. Tense of the imperative mood expresses aspect only , like subjunctives, optatives, and infinitives. The imperative only occurs only in the second and third persons.

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Imperatives
Imperatives

  • Another verbal mood in Greek is the Imperative mood.

  • Imperative mood expresses commands.

  • Tense of the imperative mood expresses aspect only, like subjunctives, optatives, and infinitives.

  • The imperative only occurs only in the second and third persons.


Present imperative active
Present Imperative - Active

  • -ετω

  • -ετε

  • -οντων

  • βάλλε

  • βαλλέτω

  • βάλλετε

  • βαλλόντων


Present imperative mid passive
Present Imperative – Mid/Passive

  • -ου <-εσο

  • -εσθω

  • -εσθε

  • -εσθων

  • βάλλου

  • βαλλέσθω

  • βάλλεσθε

  • βαλλέσθων


Contract verbs present imperative
Contract Verbs Present Imperative

  • The three types of contract verbs (α, ε, ο) form their imperatives by using the same endings and following the normal rules of contraction.

  • This is true both for the active and middle/passive forms.

  • τιμῶ (τιμάου)

  • τιμώντων (τιμαόντων)

  • τιμάσθων (τιμαέσθων)


1 st aorist imperative active
1st Aorist Imperative - Active

  • -ον

  • -ατω

  • -ατε

  • -αντων

  • γράψον

  • γραψάτω

  • γράψατε

  • γραψάντων


1 st aorist imperative middle
1st Aorist Imperative - Middle

  • -αι

  • -ασθω

  • -ασθε

  • -ασθων

  • γράψαι

  • γραψάσθω

  • γράψασθε

  • γραψάσθων


2 nd aorist imperative active
2nd Aorist Imperative - Active

  • -ετω

  • -ετε

  • -οντων

  • βάλε

  • βαλέτω

  • βάλετε

  • βαλόντων


2 nd aorist imperative middle
2nd Aorist Imperative - Middle

  • -οῦ

  • -εσθω

  • -εσθε

  • -εσθων

  • βαλοῦ

  • βαλέσθω

  • βάλεσθε

  • βαλέσθων


Aorist imperative passive
Aorist Imperative - Passive

  • ητι (ηθι)

  • ητω

  • ητε

  • εντων

  • γράφητι

  • γραφήτω

  • γράφητε

  • γραφέντων


Commnads summary
Commnads Summary

PERSON

  • Subjunctive (Hortatory)

  • Imperative

  • Imperative

  • Many commands in both the hortatory subjunctive and the imperative are preceeded by idiomatic statements like: ἄγε, ἄγετε, φέρε, ἴθι, εἰ δ’ἄγε. All mean “come on”.


Prohibitions summary
Prohibitions Summary

PERSON PROGRESSIVE/REPEATED SIMPLE

1 μή + Present Subj. μή +Aor. Subj.

(Hortatory) (Hortatory)

2 μή + Present Imperative μή + Aor. Subj.

(Prohibitive)

3 μή + Present Imperative μή + Aor. Subj.

(Prohibitive)


Unit 11
αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό

  • This word is used in Greek both as an adjective and a pronoun.

  • It functions as an adjective in the attributive position.

  • It functions as a adjective in the predicate position.

  • It is a personal pronoun for the third person when used independently.


Unit 11
αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό

αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό

αὐτοῦ αὐτῆς αὐτοῦ

αὐτῷ αὐτῇ αὐτῷ

αὐτόν αὐτήν αὐτό

αὐτοί αὐταί αὐτά

αὐτῶν αὐτῶν αὐτῶν

αὐτοῖς αὐταῖς αὐτοῖς

αὐτούς αὐτάς αὐτά


Attributive
αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό - Attributive

  • In the attributive position, it functions as an adjective.

  • The English translation will be “the same”.

  • ὁ αὐτὸς ποιητής

  • the same poet

  • τὸ αὐτὸ πρᾶγμα

  • the same thing/issue/event/problem


Intensive
αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό - Intensive

  • In the predicate position, it functions as an intensive adjective.

  • The English translation will be “-self” or “personally”.

  • It may modify an unexpressed subject of a verb.


Intensive1
αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό - Intensive

  • ὁ ποιητήςαὐτὸς

  • the poet himself/personally

  • τὸ πρᾶγμα αὐτὸ

  • the thing/issue/event/problem itself


Pronoun
αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό - Pronoun

  • When it does not modify another word it is serving as the third person pronoun.

  • In classical Attic, it will not appear in the nominative in this use.

  • him, her, it, his, hers, its, etc.

  • αὐτοῖς αἶγας ἐθύσαμεν

  • We sacrificed goats to them.


Temporal clauses
Temporal Clauses

  • Temporal clauses are dependent clauses which express a relationship in time between the action within the clause and the action of the main sentence.

  • As usual, the action of a main clause can be past, present, or future.

  • The action of a dependent clause will then be prior, simultaneous, or subsequent.


Temporal clauses1
Temporal Clauses

  • Like conditional statements, temporal clauses are the dependentprotasis, and the main clause is the independentapodosis.

  • Temporal clause = protasis

  • Main clause = apodosis


Temporal clauses2
Temporal Clauses

  • Past Definite (past tense indicative)

    • Prior: ἐπεί, ἐπειδή + past tense indicative

    • Simultaneous: ὅτε + aorist or imperfect ind.

  • Present General (present indicative)

    • Prior: ἐπειδάν +aorist subj.

    • Simultaneous: ὅταν + present or aorist subj.


Temporal clauses3
Temporal Clauses

  • Past General (imperfect indicative)

    • Prior: ἐπεί, ἐπειδή + aorist optative

    • Simultaneous: ὅτε + present or aorist optative

  • Future More Vivid (future indicative)

    • Prior: ἐπειδάν +aorist subj.

    • Simultaneous: ὅταν + present or aorist subj.