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SO1506. Urbanisation. Lecture Outline. Roots of Urbanisation Early Cities Pre-Industrial Europe The Rise of the Modern Industrial City Planning and Political Management 21st Century Developments Global and World Cities. The Urban: A ‘New’ Form of Human Settlement.

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SO1506

Urbanisation


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Lecture Outline

  • Roots of Urbanisation

  • Early Cities

  • Pre-Industrial Europe

  • The Rise of the Modern Industrial City

  • Planning and Political Management

  • 21st Century Developments

  • Global and World Cities


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The Urban: A ‘New’ Form of Human Settlement

  • Modern Humans (cc 120 -130k years ago)

  • Hunter Gatherers? Agriculture - 99% of Human History is Rural

  • First Cities (cc10 – 12K years ago) – Middle East


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Classical Cities – The Cradle of Western Civilisation

  • Aegean (Knossos from cc 2000BC)

  • Greek City States

  • Rome (cc750BC – cc476AD)


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The Medieval & Pre-Industrial City

  • Fall of Rome & Decline of European Cities

  • Cathedral ‘Cities’ & Walled Settlements (Agrarian Localism)

  • Urban Revival - Trade & Renaissance Cities

  • The ‘Bourgeoisie’


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The Rise of the Modern Industrial City: Industrialisatian & Urbanisation

  • Push, Pull Factors: Agricultural and Industrial Change (cc17th century onward)

  • UK: 1810 – 10% of population in cities and towns; 1910 – 80%


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The Expansion of Cities in the 19th Century Urbanisation

1800 1850 1900

London 1,000,000 2,685,000 6,500,000

Paris 500,000 1,000,000 2,700,000

Vienna 247,000 444,000 1,675,000

Berlin 172,000 419,000 1,889,000

New York 60,515 515,000 3,437,000

Chicago <1000 29,000 1,689,000


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Modern Cities Urbanisation

  • The Industrial Metropolis (until post WWII era)

  • Suburbia & Decentralisation


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Development of the Modern City Urbanisation

  • Burgess’ (Ecological) Model of Urban Development (1923) –

  • Process of development reflects competition for space


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Town Planning & Images of the ‘Modern’ City Urbanisation

  • Howards’ ‘Garden City’ (late 19th C.)

  • Le Corbusier’s ‘Radiant City’ (early 20th C.)


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Urban Governance Urbanisation

  • ‘Graft’ & ‘Bossism’ : 18th – 19th C.

  • Municipal ‘Socialism’ : Late 19th and Early 20th C.

  • Collective Consumption & Managerialism : Mid 20th C.

  • Privatisation : Late 20th C. - Present

  • Local Democracy in a Global Context


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De-Industrialisation & the Consumer City Urbanisation

  • Decline of Industry & Rise of Service Economy

  • Urban Sprawl & ‘Multiple Metropolitan Region’


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Gentrification Urbanisation

  • 1980’s onwards: Back to the City

  • Regeneration

  • Displacement (of old working classes)


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Urbanisation in the Developing World Urbanisation

  • Rapid Urbanisation through Globalisation

  • Extreme Polarisation

  • Shanty Towns


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The Global City Urbanisation

  • World Cities (Friedman)

  • Global Cities (Sassen)

  • Global Cites & Hinterland


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SO1506 Urbanisation

Urbanisation 2

Cities, Communities & Identities


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Lecture Outline Urbanisation

  • Urbanisation & Social Relations

  • Self & the City

  • Urban Communities

  • Consumerism

  • Urban Society

  • Urban Tensions

  • Future of Urban Society


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Urbanisation & Social Relations Urbanisation

  • Ferdinand Tönnies: Gemeinschaft & Gesellschaft

  • Emile Durkheim: Mechanical & Organic Solidarity


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Urbanisation & Social Relations Urbanisation

  • Georg Simmel:

  • ‘Nervous Exhaustion’ & ‘The Blasé Attitude’ (see also Goffman and ‘Civil Inattention)


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City and Self Identity Urbanisation

  • “...our physical contacts are close but our social contacts are distant. The urban world puts a premium on visual recognition. We see the uniform which denotes the role of the functionaries and are oblivious to the personal eccentricities that are hidden behind the uniform. . . .” Tonnies

  • The ‘Flaneur’

  • Privacy & Experience

  • Distinction


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City and Self Identity Urbanisation

  • The Urban Setting, Appearances and Consumer Culture

  • City provides the ideal context for identification through consumer goods


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Urbanisation and Community: The Chicago School Urbanisation

  • Robert Ezra Park

  • The City as a ‘Mosaic’

  • ‘Natural Areas’


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Urbanisation and Community: The Chicago School Urbanisation

  • Louis Wirth:

  • The ‘Community Lost’ Argument

  • Primary and Secondary Relationships

  • Social Disorganisation


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Urbanisation and Community Urbanisation

  • Herbert Gans: ‘Urban Villagers’

  • Young & Wilmott: ‘Family and Kinship in East London’ (Bethnal Green)

  • Robert Putnam: ‘Bowling Alone’ & Social Capital


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Urbanisation and Community Urbanisation

  • Robert Bellah: The ‘Lifestyle Enclave’

  • Quasi-Community through Shared Patterns of Consumption, Appearance etc.


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Urban Societies Urbanisation

  • Individualism

  • Privacy & Estrangement

  • Self Consciousness & Appearances

  • Consumerism

  • Community?

  • What holds it all together?


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Virtual Community? Urbanisation

  • Mass Media & Celebrity Culture

  • Cyber culture?

  • ‘Neo-Tribes’


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Urban Tensions: Inequality Urbanisation

  • Social Class

  • Ethnicity

  • Gender

  • Work & Housing


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Urban Tensions: Crime & Deviance Urbanisation

  • The ‘Dangerous Classes’:

  • Social Disorganisation (Wirth; Shaw & McKay)

  • Strain Theory (Merton)

  • Opportunity & Insecurity (Savage)

  • Social Disorder


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Future Cities/Future Citizens Urbanisation

  • The Global Megalopolis: Utopia or Dystopia


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