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  1. The Bakumatsu Era: Pivotal Moments

  2. 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa signed • 1858 Commercial Treaty proposed by U.S. • Hotta takes it to Kyoto for Imperial approval

  3. 1858-9 Ansei Purge: Ii Naosuke, fudai daimyo of Hizen, replaces Hotta; becomes Tairo • 1860 Ii Assassinated outside Shogun's palace • 1861 Shishi attack, kill Harris' interpreter • 1862 Shishi attack Richardson, from G.B.

  4. 1863 Summer, Fall: Anglo-American-French Dutch combined fleet attacks Satsuma and Choshu; thereafter, • Sat-Cho send students to G.B. • 1864 Summer: pitched battle in Kyoto between shishi from Choshu and Satsuma and Aizu gaurd units--many shishi killed • Fall: bakufu sends 1st Punitive Expedition v. Choshu

  5. 1866 Sakamoto Ryoma mediates between Sat-Cho: anti-Bakufu Alliance • Bakufu calls for 2nd Punitive Expediton--little support • Keiki becomes Shogun; launches "last ditch' reform program

  6. 1867 Sakamoto Plan put forth • Keiki agrees to step down as Shogun • 1868 Sat-Cho-To-Hi group moves against bakufu (Jan.) • April Charter Oath issue

  7. The Charter Oath • 1. An assembly consisting of daimyo shall be established and all matters of state shall be decided by open discussion. • 2. The high and the low shall unite in carrying out the administration of economic and financial affairs.

  8. 3. It is requested that a system be established under which not only civil and military officials, but also the common people may be permitted to pursue their respective callings so that there may be no discontent. • 4. Evil practices from the past shall be discarded and all our actions shall follow the accepted practices of the world.

  9. 5. Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to broaden and strengthen the foundation of imperial rule.