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Chapter 12 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

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  1. Chapter 12 Structures and Properties of Materials 12.1 Classification of Substances According to Structure 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding

  2. 12.1 Classification of Substances According to Structures (SB p.277) forces of attraction between particles weaken liquid Particles (may be molecules, ions or metallic atoms)  gas forces of attraction between particles broken    Some Pre-knowledge solid

  3. 12.1 Classification of Substances According to Structures (SB p.278)

  4. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.279) forces of attraction between particles weaken forces of attraction between particles broken Simple Molecular Structures Examples liquid iodine (by raising the temp.) solid iodine(at room temp.) Gaseous iodine (by further raising the temp.)

  5. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.279) forces of attraction between particles weaken liquid chlorine (by further lowering the temp.) forces of attraction between particles strengthen (by lowering the temp.) Simple Molecular Structures Examples solid chlorine(at room temp.) gaseous chlorine(at room temp.)

  6. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.280) Properties of simple molecular substances • Low melting points and boiling points • Soft and easily distorted • Non-conductors of electricity • Usually insoluble in oplar solvents but soluble in non-polar solvents

  7. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.281) Macromolecular Structures Substances with macromolecular structures consist of very large molecules containing thousands of atoms.

  8. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.280) Graphite(giant covalent structure) Giant Structures Substances with giant covalent structure (graphite), giant ionic structure (sodium chloride) and giant metallic structure (copper)

  9. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.279) Giant covalent structures diamond and silicon(IV) oxide (quartz)

  10. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.279) Giant covalent structures The giant covalent structures of graphite ( a layered structure)

  11. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.281) Properties of giant covalent substances • High melting points and boiling points • Hard and rigid • Poor conductors of heat and electricity • Insoluble in any solvent

  12. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.281) Properties of ionic compounds • High melting and boiling points • Hard but brittle • Good conductors of electricity in molten or aqueous state • Soluble in polar solvents but insoluble in non-polar solvents

  13. 12.2 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding (SB p.283) Properties of metals • High melting and boiling points • Good conductors of heat and electricity • High density • Malleable and ductile

  14. The END