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STEP 1: CONVERTING THE LEGACY SYSTEM DATA TO A FLAT FILE to internal
table CALLED "CONVERSION".
STEP 2: TRANSFERING THE FLAT FILE INTO SAP SYSTEM CALLED "SAP DATA TRANSFER".
STEP 3: DEPENDING UPON THE BDC TYPE i)call transaction(Write the program explicity)
ii) create sessions (sessions are created and processed.if success data will transfer).
You can use field symbols to make the program more dynamic. In this example the
name of a table control is substituted by a field symbol. Thus you cal call the form with any
internal table, using the name of the table control as a parameter.
field-symbols<tc> type cxtab_control. “Table control
assign (p_tc_name) to <tc>.
* insert 100 lines in table control
<tc>-lines = 100.
a) I, F, P, N
b) I, F, P
c) I, F, N
d) I, P, N
BATCH INPUT SESSION is an intermediate step between internal table and
Data along with the action is stored in session ie data for screen fields, to which screen it is
passed,program name behind it, and how next screen is processed.
BAPI”S provide the standard interface to other applications apart from SAP and
within differntvesions of SAP too. Also it is OOD bases so dosen”t depends on screen flow.
BDC gets failed if we make changes for screen changes through IMG customization.
d) None of the above
Ans: a, b, c
i) If the user forgets to opt for keep session then the session will be automatically removed
from the session queue(log remains). However if session is processed we may delete it
ii)if session processing fails data will not be transferred to SAP database table.
advantages: view is used to retrieve the data very fastly from the database tables
*memory wastage is reduced
*faster than joins to retrieve the data from database tables
view is not a container,it will not hold the data.
a) CONSTANTS and TABLES
b) DATA and DATA
c) DATA and TABLES
d) CONSTANTS and DATA
4 types of tables
i)Transparent tables - Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in
database exactly with the same data and fields. Both Opensql and Nativesql can be used.
ii)Pool tables & iii)Cluster tables -
These are logical tables that are arranged as records of transparent tables.one cannot use
native sql on these tables
(onlyopensql).They are not managable directly using database system tools.
iv)Internal tables -
First of all tunning can be done
In three ways: disk i/o ,sqltunning , memory tunning,
Before tunning u have to get the status of your database using
Oracle utility called statpack ,tkprof, then you should go for tunning
a) Type D and T cannot be inter-converted
b) None of the other types can be converted into D and T.
c) D and T cannot be converted into any other type.
d) Only C can convert into D/T and vice-versa.
step 1: creating domains(data type,fieldlength,range).
step 2: creating data elements(properties and type for a table
step 3: creating tables(SE11).
client independent tables:
the table in which the first field is not mandt is the client independent tables
*mandt is the field with mandt as the data element
*automatically client which we login is populated to mandt.
TRANSPARENT TABLE DO EXIST WITH THE SAME STRUCTURE BOTH IN THE DICTIONARY
AS WELL AS IN THE DATABASE,EXACTLY WITH THE SAME DATA AND FIELDS.
there are four types
these are the user exits
Ans: a, b, c
DOMAINS : FORMAL DEFINITION OF THE DATA TYPES.THEY SET ATTRIBUTES
SUCH AS DATA TYPE,LENGTH,RANGE.
DATA ELEMENT : A FIELD IN R/3 SYSTEM IS A DATA ELEMENT.
First we need to put Break point in Print program where ever you want to stop the execution.
After in SE71 give your form name and go to Utilities–>Active De-bugger.
Then go to your transcation like VF03(for Invoice or Credit memo) etc to see the print preview
or print the form execute it.
When you execute it the the form Debugging will get activated and you can see your Form
execution step by step.
c) Compilation error
If an entry with the same key already exists, the COLLECT statement does not
append a new line, but adds the contents of the numeric fields in the work area to the
contents of the numeric fields in the existing entry.
Data Dictionary Objects
* Data Element
* Type Groups
* Search Helps/Matchcode Objects
* Lock objects
* Table Types
Open SQL , native SQL are the interfaces to create the database applicatons.
Open SQL is consistant across different types of existing Databases.
Native SQL is the database language specific to database.Its API is specific to the databse.
Open SQL API is consistent across all vendors
steps to create database tables
1.go to se11
2.give name the database table
3.give short description for the table
4.Give delivery class name as A and data browser / table view maint as Display/maintenence
5.select fields tab
6.give field name data type(user defined element type/built-in-type),short text
7.select technical settings tab ,give data class as appl0 and size category as 0
9.goutillities menu click table contents select create and enter the field values then select display
in table contents and u can view the table values with field lables
An Interactive report is a dynamic drill down report that produces the list on
a) THE LIST PRODUCED BY CLASSICAL REPORT DOESN'T allow user to interact with the
the list produced by interactive report allows the user to interact with the system.
b) ONCE A CLASSICAL REPORT EXECUTED USER LOOSES CONTROL.IR USER HAS
c) IN CLASSICAL REPORT DRILLING IS NOT POSSIBLE.IN INTERACTIVE DRILLING IS
NO. TRANSPARENT TABLE DO EXIST WITH THE SAME STRUCTURE BOTH IN THE
DICTIONARY AS WELL AS IN THE DATABASE,EXACTLY WITH THE SAME DATA
at the point you will activate your table a same transparent table is going to be create in database.
creating function module:-
called program - se37-creating funcgrp,funcmodule by assigning
calling program - SE38-in pgm click pattern and write function name- provide
domains are the dictionary objects that are assigned with constants and data types
data elements are dictionary objects that are assigned with the domains.
* data elements are used to create relation between tables.
* data elements are used to transfer the data from one R/3 to another R/3.
* to create search helps.
i)It is a standard data type object which exists only during the runtime of the program.
They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for reorganising
the contents of database tables according to users need.
iii)The number of memory allocations the system need to allocate for the next record
IT IS USED TO GET THE RECORD FROM THE INTERNAL TABLE HEADER TO THE
IT ALLOWS DUPLICATION
IT IS USED TO A GET A RECORD FROM HEADER TO THE BODY AREA BUT IT WILL
NOT ALLOW ANY DUPLICATION EXCEPT IF THERE IS ANY NUMERIC FIELS IT
ADDS THAT FIELDS DATA BUT NOT AS A NEW RECORD.
Execute the TxnSWDD(Creating a new Workflow).
In the header of the Workflow, define the Business Object and Event you refer to for triggering
Create the Steps required for your workflow(Activity).
Inside the Activity, Create the task and assign the Business Object and the related method for
that business object.
Activate the Workflow.
a) Triggered by a New-page statement
b) When the First Write Statement of the program is encountered.
c) Before outputting the first line on a new page.
Ans: b, c
Performance of ABAPs can be improved by minimizing the amount of data to be
The data set must be transferred through the network to the applications, so reducing the
amount OF time and also reduces the network traffic.
Some measures that can be taken are:
- Use views defined in the ABAP/4 DDIC (also has the advantage of better reusability).
- Use field list (SELECT clause) rather than SELECT *.
- Range tables should be avoided (IN operator)
- Avoid nested SELECTS.
ii)field symbols and field groups.
Group by clause is used to fetch the data from the table by the specified field
ex.select count (*) from emptable group by deptno where deptno = 1.
It is used to find the number of employees present in the specified department no.
A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an ABAP/4
The programmer need not worry about the primary key for each table.Because Logical
database knows how the different tables relate to each other,and can issue the SELECT
command with proper where clause to retrieve the data.
i)An easy-to-use standard user interface.
ii)check functions which check that user input is complete,correct,and plausible.
iii)meaningful data selection.
iv)central authorization checks for database accesses.
v)good read access performance while retaining the hierarchical data view determined by
the application logic.
i)If you donot specify a logical database in the program attributes,the GET events never
ii)There is no ENDGET command,so the code block associated with an event ends with
the next event
statement (such as another GET or an END-OF-SELECTION).88.What are logical databases? What are the advantages/disadvantages of logicaldatabases?
WE CAN CREATE A STRUCTURE LIKE THE SAME STRUCTURE AS
DATABASE TABLE AND WE CAN USE
SELECT* FROM DATABASE TABLE INTO TABLE ITAB
INSERT INTO ITAB VALUES DATABASE TABLE
We look into the list of incorrect session and process it again. To correct
incorrect session we analyize the session to determine which screen and value produced
the error.For small errors in data we correct them interactively otherwise
modify batch input program that has generated the session or many times even the
dynpro - flow logic + screens.
menu painter -
GUI Status - It is subset of the interface elements(title bar,menubar,standard tool
bar,push buttons) used for a certain screen.
The status comprises those elements that are currently needed by the transaction.
The control statements that control the screen flow.
PBO - This event is triggered before the screen is displayed.
PAI - This event is responsible for processing of screen after the user enters the data and
clicks the pushbutton.
When the same sequence of statements in several programs are to be written
rapidly they are coded in include programs (External programs) and are included in
The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers
and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application
servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the
database, and also with each other, using the message server.
ex: see in intel book page no 35/65
userdefined Field Strings and internal tables.
Pool tables is a logical representation of transparent tables. Hence no existence
at database level. Where as transparent tables are physical tables and exist at database
For cardinality one out of two (domain or data element) should be the same for
Ztest1 and Ztest2 tables. M:N
Cardinality specifies the number of dependent(Target) and independent (source) entities
which can be in a relationship.
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