Literacy Coordinators July 27th 2011 Literacy / Numeracy week http://www.education.vic.gov.au/about/events/litnumweek/default.htm 29 August – 4 September 2011 6 – 18 month strategy http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/vlns/2011-12-Literacy-Numeracy.pdf Elluminate sessions – PD
WRITING: CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING P-12Loddon Mallee Region
Session Outline • Breakthrough Framework • Literacy Elements • A Multidimensional Approach to Teaching Writing • Definition of Contextual Understanding • Gradual Release of Responsibility • Why Contextual Understanding is Important • Activity: an introduction to Contextual Understanding • The Four Resources Model • Introducing Critical Literacy • The role of the teacher and student • Introducing Contextual Understanding Through Shared Reading • Identifying an instructional focus • References
Purpose CONTEXT OF THE WRITING EVENT Roles and Relationships Subject Matter Socio-cultural Influences Situation Summons RANGE OF TEXT FORMS Blueprints Cartoons Rules Memos Affidavits Policies Timetables Complaints Narratives Poems Song Lyrics Fairy Tales Fables Myths Instructions Interviews Blurbs Descriptions Competition Entries Diaries Lists Menus Retells Surveys Recipes Notes Journals Messages Invoices Reports Word Directions Puzzles Labels Indexes Glossaries Expositions Editorials Job Applications Headlines Questionnaires Explanations Apologies Invitations Jokes Experiments Comics Contents Pages Biographies Autobiographies Meeting Minutes Personal Correspondence Reviews THREE CUEING SYSTEM Syntactic Semantic Graphophonic PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Planning WRITING PROCESSESDrafting PublishingConferring Refining WRITING STRATEGIES self – questioning paraphrasing / summarising connecting chunking using predicting spelling generalisations creating images sounding out determining importance using analogy consulting an authority comparing using meaning re-reading using memory aids synthesising using visual memory
Defining Contextual Understanding in writing Writers make deliberate choices of text type and language used such as vocabulary and sentence structure to communicate and connect with or influence an intended audience.
Where Does Contextual Understanding Fit In? Read/Write Aloud Shared Reading/Writing Independent Reading/Writing Contextual Understanding Guided Reading/Writing
All texts are created by someone, somewhere, for some reason
Activity: How readers interpret text from different perspectives
The questions that _____ face as they raise _____ from _____ to adult life are not easy to _____. Both _____ and _____ can become concerned when health problems such as _____ arise any time after the _____ stage to later life. Experts recommend that young _____ should have plenty of _____ and nutritious food for healthy growth. _____ and _____ should not share the same _____ or even sleep in the same _____. They may be afraid of the _____.
The questions that p_____ face as they raise ch_____ from in_____ to adult life are not easy to an_____. Both fa_____ and m_____ can become concerned when health problems such as co_____ arise any time after the e_____ stage to later life. Experts recommend that young ch_____ should have plenty of s_____ and nutritious food for healthy growth. B_____ and g_____ should not share the same b_____ or even sleep in the same r_____. They may be afraid of the d_____.
The questions that poultrymen face as they raise chickens from incubation to adult life are not easy to answer. Both farmers and merchants can become concerned when health problems such as coccidiosis arise any time after the egg stage to later life. Experts recommend that young chicks should have plenty of sunshine and nutritious food for healthy growth. Banties and geese should not share the same barnyard or even sleep in the same roost. They may be afraid of the dark. ~Adapted from Madeline Hunter
LEARNING FOCUS We are learning to understand how a person’s background influences what they take from a text This is because authors often adjust texts to suit the needs and expectations of their audience. Evidence of success • Discuss differing viewpoints
The House Activity Class is divided into 4 groups (Count off depending on numbers) Each group is given a defined role (card)- DO NOT SHARE Text is read to students. Task is remember as many details as possible from the text (NO NOTES YET) Group together record the information they as a group remember Charts are placed on the wall and discussed HO 1, 2 and 3 after activity
Code Breaker Text Participant Luke and Freebody Four Resources Model Text User Text Analyst
Code Breaker • Decoding the codes and conventions of written, spoken and visual text • Understand: • The relationship between spoken sounds and written symbols • The grammar of texts • The structural conventions of texts • Text Participant • Comprehending written, spoken and visual texts • Make meaning by drawing on: • Own experiences and prior knowledge • Knowledge of similar texts Four Resources Model • Text Analyst • Understanding how texts position readers, viewers and listeners • Is aware that: can identify how: • Texts are not ideologically natural or neutral but are crafted to represent the views/interests of writer • Information, ideas and language in texts influence reader perceptions • Texts empower or disempower certain groups • Text User • Understanding the purposes of different written, spoken and visual texts for different cultural and social functions • Know that: • Different texts have different purposes • These purposes shape the way texts are structured and formed • Apply this knowledge in using (eg comprehending, creating, transforming) text
Socio-cultural Context • Factors that have an impact on socio-cultural context in texts include the • Values, attitudes, beliefs and assumptions of the writer and the audience • Gender, ethnicity and status of writers • It is this aspect of context that teachers focus on when they talk about critical literacy.
When writing, students need to make choices about: • the purpose and audience • the form and organisation • the content • Physical situation • Beliefs values and assumptions
Questions about Form and Organisation
Teachers need to plan learning experiences that • introduce students to the idea that writing can be used as a way of interacting with others to bring about social change • make links to local and wider community • expose students to text types • immerse students in a variety of media used to communicate ideas eg. blog, email, letter
What does Contextual Understanding look like in the classroom? • Activities based upon the deconstruction of every day, media or multimedia texts have provided successful introductions to contextual understanding • familiarisation (immersion) • prediction of text purpose • deconstruction (analysis) • reconstruction
Introducing Contextual Understanding in Writing through Shared Reading Focus: to examine and discuss the writing decisions authors have made and why they make them. This is because authors often adjust texts to suit the needs and expectations of their audience. You will know you are successful when you reflect on your own writing decisions before, during and after writing.
The world has shut its ears and moved on.
How do we identify an Instructional Focus?(See Handout – Assessing Contextual Understanding) • VELS • Prior observations including writing conferences • Writing Tasks including teacher moderation • NAPLAN Data • First Steps Writing Map of Development HO 10
VELS LEVEL 4 Writing Statement At Level 4, students produce, in print and Electronic forms, a variety of texts for different purposes using structures and features of language appropriate to the purpose, audience and context of the writing. They begin to use simple figurative language and visual images.They use a range of vocabulary, a variety of sentence structures, and use punctuation accurately, including apostrophes. They identify and use different parts of speech,including nouns, pronouns, adverbs, comparative adverbs and adjectives, and use appropriate prepositions and conjunctions. They use a range of approaches to spelling, applying morphemic knowledge and an understanding of visual and phonic patterns. They employ a variety of strategies for writing, including note-making, using models, planning, editing and proofreading.
NAPLAN Data Writing Criteria Report National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy Tests 2009 (Year 9, Group: ALL, Class: All)
National Curriculum English curriculum.pdf
References • Western Australia First Steps • VELS - Strands • NAPLAN • Write ways : modelling writing forms: Lesley Wing Jan • The Whole Story – Natural Learning and the Acquisition of Literacy in the Classroom: Brian Cambourne • Teaching Adolescent Writers: Kelly Gallagher • Invitations - Changing as Teachers and Learners K-12: Regie Routman • ReadWriteThink – International Reading Association 2002 • Freebody, P. (1992). A socio-cultural approach: Resourcing four roles as a literacy learner. In A. Watson & A. Badenhop (Eds.), Prevention of reading failure. • National Curriculum http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Documents/English%20curriculum.pdf • Tasmanian Education Department http://wwwfp.education.tas.gov.au/english/critlit.htm
Reviewing today’s session • A Multidimensional Approach to Teaching Writing • Defining Contextual Understanding • Activity: How readers interpret text from different perspectives • The Four Resources Model - • Introduced Contextual Understanding Through Shared Reading • Identifying an instructional focus • Reflection PCQ