Li2 Language variation. gender. Today’s topics. Sex vs gender Linguistic reflections of social attitudes concerning gender Gender-based linguistic differences. Inherent vs. grammatical gender. inherent gender ( sex ) socially-constructed gender 3rd social gender in Oman: gay men
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Sample from the Thesaurus of American Slang
NB what follows are group-preferential distributions (speakers from two groups both use a set of forms, but one group uses them more often) rather than group-exclusive patterns, in which speakers from one group use a form, while speakers from another group do not.
1st person formal watakusi watakusi
plain boku watasi
deprecatory/ ore Ø
2d person formal anata anata
plain kimi anata
deprecatory/ omae Ø
Other examples: Lakota, Chukchee…
Traditional variationist differences
Holmquist, Jonathan. 1985. Social correlates of a linguistic variable: A study in a Spanish village. Language in Society 14:191-203.
Eckert, Penelope. 1989. Jocks and burnouts: Social categories and identity in the high school. New York: Teachers College Press.
Waksler, Rachelle. 2001. Pitch range and women’s sexual orientation. Word 52.1:69-77.
Eakins, Barbara/Eakins, Gene: "Verbal Turn-Taking and Exchanges in Faculty Dialogue". In: Dubois, Betty/Crouch, Isabel (eds.) (1976): The Sociology of the Languages of American Women. San Antonio, TX: 53-61.
Holmes, Janet (1992): An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. London.
West, Candace: "When the Doctor is a 'Lady': Power, Status and Gender in Physician-Patient Encounters". In: Coates, Jennifer (ed) (1998): Language and Gender: A Reader. Oxford: 396-412.
Zimmerman, Don/West, Candice: "Sex Roles, Interruptions and Silences in Conversations". In: Thorne, Barrie/Henley, Nancy (eds.) (1975): Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Rowley; MA: 105-129.
Labov, William. 2003. The reinterpretation of social categories in the course of linguistic change. Paper presented at the LSA.
Chambers, J. K. 1995. Sociolinguistic theory: Linguistic variation and its social significance. Oxford: Blackwell.
Cheshire, Jenny. 1982, Linguistic variation and social function. In S Romaine, ed. 1982, Sociolinguistic variation in speech communities, 153-166. [Excerpted in J. Coates ed. 1998, Language & Gender: A Reader, 29-41.]
Coates, Jennifer. 1993 (2nd ed.). Women, Men and Language. London: Longman.
Coates, Jennifer, ed. 1998. Language and Gender: A Reader. (Blackwell Publishers).
Coupland, Nikolas, & Adam Jaworski, eds. 1997. Sociolinguistics: A reader. Palgrave/St. Martin’s Press.
Eckert, Penelope. 1989. The whole woman: sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change 1:245-267.
Eckert, Penelope. 1998. Gender and sociolinguistic variation. In J. Coates ed. 1998, Language & Gender: A reader, 64-75.
Gordon, Elizabeth. 1997. Sex, speech, and stereotypes: why women use prestige speech forms more than men. Language in Society 26: 47-64.
Guy, Gregory. 1988. Language and social class. In F. Newmeyer, ed., Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey, vol. 4. (Language: The Socio-cultural context.), 37-63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Labov, William. 1990. The intersection of sex and social class in the course of linguistic change. Language Variation and Change 2: 205-254.
Patrick, Peter L. To appear 2001. The speech community. In J.K. Chambers, P. Trudgill and N. Schilling-Estes, eds., Handbook on Language Variation. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pierrehumbert, Janet, Tessa Bent, Benjamin Munson, Ann Bradlow, and J. Michael Bailey. 2004. The influence of sexual orientation on vowel production. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 116.4:1905-1908.
Trudgill, Peter. 1983. Sex and covert prestige. In P Trudgill On Dialect, Chap. 10. [Revision of the original 1972 article in Language in Society; which is excerpted in J. Coates, ed. 1998, Language & Gender: A reader, 21-28.]
Holmes, Janet (1998). Women's talk: The Question of Sociolinguistic Universals. In Language and Gender: A Reader , Jennifer Coates, ed. Oxford: Blackwell.461-483.