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Invasive Weeds on the Middle Fork Snoqualmie. Sasha Shaw Education Specialist King County Noxious Weed Program. Agenda. Weed Definitions Middle Fork Weed Priorities Priority Weeds Present in the Watershed Class A and B Noxious Weeds Other Priority Invasive Weeds

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Invasive Weeds on the Middle Fork Snoqualmie


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Invasive Weeds on the Middle Fork Snoqualmie Sasha Shaw Education Specialist King County Noxious Weed Program

    2. Agenda • Weed Definitions • Middle Fork Weed Priorities • Priority Weeds Present in the Watershed • Class A and B Noxious Weeds • Other Priority Invasive Weeds • Other Widespread Weeds and Lower Priority Plants Present but not Surveyed • Noxious Weeds Threatening to Invade

    3. What is an Invasive Weed? • Introduced / non-native • Ability to out-compete native plants • Lack of predators or natural controls • Ability to modify local ecology • Aggressive ability to reproduce Invasive knotweed is one of the toughest plants to control and damages some of the highest quality habitats

    4. What is a Noxious Weed? • Non-native plant that impacts agriculture, wildlife, human health, land values or natural resources • Defined and regulated by state law (RCW 17.10) • county lists are chosen from the state list • regulated in parts of the state where they have limited distribution

    5. What are the Weed Classes? • Class A Weeds – new invaders, control required statewide, still a chance to eradicate • Class B and C Designates – control required in King County, still have a chance to stop them from getting established • Non-Designates and Weeds of Concern – widespread invasive weeds in King County, control not required but definitely a good idea whenever possible!

    6. Middle Fork Snoqualmie Weed Priorities • King County Noxious Weeds • Class A’s, B-designates, and C-selects • Non-designates and Weeds of Concern that are limited in distribution and still controllable • Non-native species newly introduced or not previously reported in the valley • Excluded from the survey: species that are already pervasive in the valley and unlikely to be controlled valley-wide

    7. Middle Fork Snoqualmie Weed Surveys Completed 2005 and 2006 • Roadsides (10 ft in on both sides) • Farther in where disturbance or weed infestations were observed • Disturbed Sites • Quarries, cut banks, logging landings • Camping sites, pullouts, trailheads, parking lots • Open talus fields, stream crossings • River by raft and river bars on foot

    8. Himalayan and Evergreen Blackberry Bohemian Knotweed Scotch Broom Reed Canary Grass English Holly English Ivy Butterfly Bush Tansy Ragwort* Yellow Hawkweed* Canada Thistle Hedge Bindweed Common Tansy Yellow Archangel Yellow Flag Iris European Mountain-Ash Spotted Knapweed* Bittersweet Nightshade Poison-hemlock Priority Weeds Identified in the Middle Fork Valley Listed in order of total area found. Weeds with * are designated for control in King County.

    9. Class A and B Noxious Weeds (Please notify the county noxious weed program if these are found)

    10. Class B Noxious Weed Tansy Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) Flowering stems are 1-6 ft tall with clusters of yellow, daisy flowers First year rosettes have round-lobed leaves, reddish stems Flowers June to October. Seeds are viable for 10 to 16 years.

    11. Tansy Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea)

    12. Yellow Hawkweed(Hieracium caespitosum) Flowers: Yellow, in tight clusters Leaves: Hairy on top and bottom, glandular and stellate hairs Roots: stoloniferous, rhizomatous

    13. Non-native Hawkweeds • Stiff hairs on stems, leaves • Basal rosette of spatula shaped leaves • Small flowers, often in tight clusters near tops of stems • Flower buds and bracts covered with black hairs • Stolons Black hairs on flower buds

    14. Yellow Hawkweed(Hieracium caespitosum) • Rosettes: March-April • Bolting: April-early June • Flowers: May-July • Seeding: July to September

    15. Native White Hawkweed: (Hieracium albiflorum)

    16. Grows 3 - 5 feet tall, perennial Pink to purple flowers, on the tips of stem branches Floral bracts tipped with dark fringe Bolting: April to July Flowering: May to October Seeding: August to October Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)

    17. Spotted Knapweed Closeups

    18. Other Priority Invasive Weeds in the MF

    19. Himalayan Blackberry(Rubus discolor)

    20. Himalayan Blackberry(Rubus armeniacus, R. discolor)

    21. Evergreen Blackberry(Rubus laciniatus) http://www.nic.funet.fi http://www.biopix.dk

    22. Good Guy Look-Alike:Native Trailing Blackberry (Rubus ursinus)

    23. Bohemian Knotweed(Polygonum bohemicum)

    24. Hollow, upright, bamboo like stems often reddish or red-speckled

    25. Typical stand of Bohemian knotweed

    26. Japanese Knotweed(Polygonum cuspidatum)

    27. Giant Knotweed(Polygonum sachalinense) Large leaves give giant knotweed its common name elephant ear bamboo Giant knotweed in early spring with last year’s dead stems

    28. Bohemian knotweed hybrid with seeds

    29. Knotweed Invasion on Rivers Knotweed rapidly spreads along rivers as fragments get moved by floods and grow into new clones downriver

    30. Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius)

    31. Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius)

    32. Scotch broom removal with weed wrenches

    33. Butterfly Bush (Buddleia davidii) Leaves gray green above and white and fuzzy on the underside, finely toothed on margins Can grow 5 to 8 feet in a single season

    34. Butterfly Bush (Buddleia davidii) Seedlings thrive in open sandy soil Butterfly bush has invaded along the Tolt River

    35. Common Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Button-like flowers are clustered at top of plant Leaves are fern-like with sharply toothed edges and a strong odor

    36. Bittersweet Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) http://oregonstate.edu/dept/nursery-weeds

    37. Bittersweet Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)

    38. Bittersweet Nightshade

    39. Hedge Bindweed(Calystegia sepium)

    40. Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    41. University of Wisconsin Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Spreads underground to form dense infestations in sunny fields Spreads by seed to new sites

    42. Native Thistles Cirsium edule Cirsium brevistylum

    43. Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum) Leaves ferny, parsley-like • Stems round and hollow, with purplish blotches • Acutely toxic when ingested; causes skin irritation 6 to 10 feet tall in 2nd year

    44. http://www.uwyo.edu/CES/WYOWEED/ Poison Hemlock

    45. European Mountain-ash(Sorbus aucuparia)

    46. Native Mountain-ash (Sorbus sitchensis)

    47. English Holly (Ilex aquifolium) • Tree 15 to 50 feet tall and 15 feet wide • Bark smooth and gray • Leaves glossy, persistent, dark green, wavy and spiny • Flowers are small and white • Berries are bright red or orange and found in small bundles like the flowers

    48. English or Atlantic Ivy(Hedera hibernica, H. helix) Ivy leaves are evergreen, lobed, dull green, with light veins