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The Family of Shaphan. Shaphan took book of the law to Josiah (2 Kgs 22) Ahikam (Shaphan’s son) saved Jeremiah from execution after temple sermon (26:24) Elasah (Shaphan’s son) conveyed letter to exiles (29:3)

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The Family of Shaphan

  • Shaphan took book of the law to Josiah (2 Kgs 22)

  • Ahikam (Shaphan’s son) saved Jeremiah from execution after temple sermon (26:24)

  • Elasah (Shaphan’s son) conveyed letter to exiles (29:3)

  • Gemariah (Shaphan’s son)--Baruch read Jeremiah’s scroll in his temple chamber; urged Jehoiakim not to burn scroll.

  • Gedaliah (Shaphan’s grandson, through Ahikam) was governor after the fall of Jerusalem (39:14) and was asked to protect Jeremiah after Babylonian victory (40:5). Later assassinated (41:2)

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Temple Sermon--609

  • Chapter 7 C; Chapter 26 B

  • Relationship to Deuteronomic reform

  • Temple of Yahweh

  • Steal, murder, commit adultery, swear falsely

  • Has this house become a den of robbers?

  • My place at Shiloh

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Temple Sermon--609

  • Chapter 26 B

  • Jeremiah is threatened with death; saved because of precedent of Micah who said: “Zion shall be plowed like a field”

  • Then Hezekiah prayed and God changed his mind

  • Was Micah unduly pessimistic, even wrong?

  • Uriah killed by Jehoiakim (26:23); per contra Jeremiah--saved by Ahikam son of Shaphan (26:24)

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Letter to the exiles 29:1-9

  • Communication took place between exile and the land

  • Build, marry, have children--seek shalom of the city

  • Worship (without temple and sacrificial cult) possible in an unclean land

  • Praying for Babylon is in Israel’s self-interest

  • Praying for the enemy

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Another letter to the exiles 51:59-64

  • Delivered by Seraiah the son of Neriah (brother of Baruch)

  • Listed disasters that would come on Babylon

  • Private rather than public

  • Dealt with future not present

  • Read it and cast it into Euphrates--thus shall Babylon sink, no more to rise

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Jeremiah’s Life (37-38)

  • Kings: Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, Zedekiah, (Gedaliah)

  • Rescued by Ebed-melech, the Cushite

  • If you, Zedekiah, surrender, your life will be spared.

  • Zedekiah begs Jeremiah not to tell others of the disastrous fate that awaits the king

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Jeremiah’s Life (39-41)

  • Zedekiah captured, witnesses murder of his sons, and is blinded.

  • Jeremiah entrusted to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan.

  • Word of deliverance for Ebed-melech.

  • Baalis king of the Ammonites sends Ishmael to assassinate Gedaliah

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Jeremiah’s Life (42-44)

  • Jeremiah advises against going to Egypt

  • Jeremiah and Baruch forcibly taken to Egypt.

  • Jeremiah: Nebuchadrezzar will invade Egypt.

  • Jeremiah denounces worship of the queen of heaven

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Baruch in 605

  • 36 Baruch writes words of first scroll and read it in the temple.

  • 36 Baruch writes also a second scroll.

  • 45 Baruch given life as a prize of war.

  • Frames story of Jeremiah and the peril of the word of God in 37-44

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Jeremiah’s Messiah

  • righteous or legitimate “branch”

    • I am going to bring my servant the branch Zech 3:8; 6:12

  • He shall rule as king and act wisely; he shall practice justice and righteousness

  • Judah will be saved and Israel dwell securely

  • “Yahweh is the source of our vindication.” Zidqiyahu becomes Yahweh sidqenu

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Shepherds scatter sheep 23:1-2

You (shepherds) drove them away 23:2

You did not supervise (attend to) them 23:2

I, Yahweh, will scatter them 9:16

I drove them away 23:3, 8

Behold I will supervise (punish) you 23:2

Deuteronomistic Phraseology in chapter 23 and related passages

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Deuteronomistic Reversals in Jeremiah

  • I will gather the remnant that has been scattered 23:3

  • I will bring them back from the place where I have driven them 23:3

  • I will carry out a saving visit of you who have been visited with punishment 29:10

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A Step beyond the Deuteronomistic History

  • Deut 28:63 and Josh 23:15: God’s bad word is as certain as his good word. Just as the Lord took delight in making you prosperous, so the Lord will take delight in bringing you to ruin.

  • Jer 31:28; 32:42 God’s good word is as certain as his bad word. Just as I have watched over them to pluck up and break down, so I will watch over them to build and to plant.

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A Reinterpretation of the Messiah, 33:14-16

  • God promises to establish the previous word (=23:5-6)

  • Judah will be saved and Jerusalem (not Israel) dwell securely

  • Her (not his) name = Yahweh is the source of our vindication

  • 33:14-26 lacking in the Septuagint

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Later reinterpretation of this passage

  • vv. 17-18 Davidic dynasty, not an individual; Levitical priests also = “dynastic”

  • vv. 19-22 the covenant with Davidic and Levitical lines unbreakable.

  • vv. 23-26 Yahweh has an unbreakable covenant with Jacob and David. One of David descendants will reign over seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

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Genesis 15 Covenant with Abram and Sarai

Genesis 17 Everlasting Covenant with Abraham and Sarah

Deuteronomy--ancestral covenant

Fulfilled in David--Nile to Euphrates and covenant with David

Genesis 17 = ancestral covenant an end in itself

Fulfilled on Horeb/Sinai

Ancestral and Sinai Covenants

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The New Covenant--Jer 31:31-34

  • It’s an oracle of Yahweh! vv. 31, 32, 33, 34

  • Both kingdoms--Israel and Judah

  • “New” or “renewed”?

  • Even though I was their husband? their baal? Ytl[b

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More on the New Covenant

  • God’s law written on heart (cf. new heart in Ezekiel)

  • What does it mean to “know” Yahweh?

    • [Josiah] judged the cause of the poor and needy….Is not this to know me? 22:15-16

  • Basis for new covenant

    • I will forgive their iniquity

    • I will not remember their sin anymore