pilot compliance to tcas resolution advisories
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Pilot Compliance to TCAS Resolution Advisories

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 23

Pilot Compliance to TCAS Resolution Advisories - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 106 Views
  • Uploaded on

Pilot Compliance to TCAS Resolution Advisories. Authors: Amy R. Pritchett , Scottie-Beth Fleming Presented by: Rachel A. Haga Cognitive Engineering Center, Georgia Tech 32 nd DASC , Oct. 9, 2013. Work sponsored by the FAA, Tom McCloy as Technical Monitor. Outline.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Pilot Compliance to TCAS Resolution Advisories' - bian


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
pilot compliance to tcas resolution advisories
Pilot Compliance to TCAS Resolution Advisories

Authors: Amy R. Pritchett , Scottie-Beth Fleming

Presented by: Rachel A. Haga

Cognitive Engineering Center, Georgia Tech

32nd DASC , Oct. 9, 2013

Work sponsored by the FAA, Tom McCloy as Technical Monitor

traffic alert and collision avoidance system tcas
Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

  • TCAS delivers a two stage advisory and vertical avoidance maneuver
    • Traffic Advisory (TA) - ‘Traffic Traffic’
    • Resolution Advisory (RA) - ‘Climb Climb’
  • Pilot is to follow an RA, even if it conflicts with ATC instructions, unless the pilot believes that safe flight would be jeopardized

Traffic Situation Display

Vertical Speed Indicator with Climb RA

Federal Aviation Administration (2000). Introduction to TCAS II Version 7. Washington, D.C.

motivation purpose
Motivation & Purpose

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

For The Experiments

Motivation: TOPA observed compliance rates of 41% to Climb RA’sand 59% to Descend RA’s

Purpose: Study contributing factors and potential solutions to inform future FAA regulation

For This Work

Motivation: Have concluded four studies

Purpose: Condensing the message into the essential ‘So What?’

Olson, W. and J. Olszta (2010).TCAS Operational Performance Assessment in the U.S. National Airspace. IEEE/AIAA Digital Avionics Systems Conference.

Olszta, J., & Olson, W. (2011). Characterization and Analysis of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Resolution Advisories Resulting for 500' and 1,000' Vertical Separation. Paper presented at the Ninth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM 2011), Berlin, Germany.

overview of study
Overview of Study

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

Participants

  • Active air transport or regional pilots
  • Received TCAS training according to FAA training standards
  • 12 – 18 pilots per study

Traffic events

  • Advisory type and aircraft trajectory
    • TA, Climb RA, Descend RA, Crossing Descend RA
    • RA caused by VFR Traffic
  • ATC information
    • Traffic Callout, Party-line Information, Conflicting ATC/TCAS Guidance
  • Traffic density
    • Heavy and Light
slide7
Simulator Study in Integrated Flightdeck – ATC Environment

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

Audio Communications (Aviation Intercom)

SideStick

ATC->TSD

VGA

Simulation Architecture

Air Traffic Simulator (TGF)

PFD

ATC

Captain

TSD

Air Traffic Transcripts

Charts & Checklists

Eyetracker

ND

PartyLine

B747-400 Simulator (RFS)

Touch

screen

First Officer

PFD

TCAS Logic

TCAS Alerts

ND

Experimenter/Instructor

Pritchett, A., Fleming, E., Cleveland, W., Zoetrum, J., Popescu, V., & Thakkar, D. (2012). Pilot Interaction with TCAS and Air Traffic Control. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems (ATACCS), London.

definition of compliance
Definition of Compliance

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

Pilot’s Response

Fully Complied?

No

Percentage Compliance

60%

TCAS RA Maneuver

Not in Compliance

In Compliance

10 seconds

15 seconds

Vertical Speed

time

2 ½ sec

5 seconds

Clear of Conflict

TCAS weakens required

vertical rate

RA Climb

TCAS assumed

¼ g pull-up

TCAS assumed constant vertical RA rate

slide10
Overall Compliance Rate

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

68% fully complied with TCAS RAs

On average complied for 96.6% durationof a RA

slide11
How are pilot’s not complying?

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

Mean time to disengage: 2.14 s

No trend among outliers

Time to disconnect

No buffer = 62% compliance

3 fps buffer = 68% compliance

Tracking vertical speed

6% increase

Time when pilot first achieved vertical rate

slide12
Operational Factors Impacting Compliance

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

Traffic Events

RA Type

ATC Communication

Traffic Density

potential interventions
Potential Interventions

Traffic Situation Displays

Additional Training

Automatic RA

slide14
Traffic Situation Displays: Current

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

Traffic Advisory

“Traffic Traffic”

Resolution Advisory

“Climb Climb”

slide15
Traffic Situation Displays: TSD+

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

TSD+ Layout and Symbology

slide16
Traffic Situation Displays: VSD

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

VSD Layout and Symbology

slide17
Traffic Situation Displays

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

No significant impact on compliance

slide18
Ground and Simulation Training

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

Approach to Training Design

Complement of Two Methods

Demonstration Based Training

Event Based Training

  • Presents traffic events that create the requirement to act
  • Builds context and complexity into each scenario as the flight progresses
  • Uses a more realistic training environment
  • Computer-Based Training
    • Introduction to TCAS
    • Traffic Situation Display
    • TCAS Advising Logic
    • Traffic Advisories
    • Resolution Advisories
    • Example Timeline of RA Evolution
  • Mid-Training Quizzes
slide19
Ground and Simulation Training

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

slide20
Automatic Resolution Advisory Response

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

Pilots left autopilot engaged for 83% (53 of 64 RAs) of the runs

Disengaged generally for

Crossing Climb RA

slide22
Conclusions

Potential Interventions

Experimental Setup

Motivation & Background

Conclusions

Pilot Compliance

  • Motivation
    • Pilot compliance to TCAS is low
  • Pilot Compliance
    • In compliance for 96.6% of the duration of the RA, on average
    • Fully complied for 68% of the runs
  • Potential Interventions
    • Changes to TSD had no significant impact
    • Training program was effective
    • Auto RA increased full compliance but greatly decreases percentage compliance for crossing climb
ad