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Modern Classic Theory. Dog. visual. shallow. features. letters. D. O. G. sounds. “d”. “o”. “g”. dog. word. deep. Dog Memories. Saw “Lassie” On TV. meanings. 4-legs. barks. animal. pet. Chase. Got Bit In May. FIDO my dog. Cats. Knowledge about dogs.

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slide1

Modern Classic Theory

Dog

visual

shallow

features

letters

D

O

G

sounds

“d”

“o”

“g”

dog

word

deep

Dog Memories

Saw

“Lassie”

On TV

meanings

4-legs

barks

animal

pet

Chase

Got

Bit

In May

FIDO

my

dog

Cats

Knowledge

about dogs

slide2

Modern Classic Theory

Dog

Sensory memory

visual

shallow

features

letters

D

O

G

Activation

Of

shallowest

levels

sounds

“d”

“o”

“g”

dog

word

deep

Dog Memories

Saw

“Lassie”

On TV

meanings

4-legs

barks

animal

pet

Chase

Got

Bit

In May

FIDO

my

dog

Cats

Knowledge

about dogs

slide3

Modern Classic Theory

Dog

Short-term store

visual

shallow

features

letters

D

O

G

Temporary

activation

of medium

and deep

Levels

(limited

Capacity)

sounds

“d”

“o”

“g”

dog

word

deep

Dog Memories

Saw

“Lassie”

On TV

meanings

4-legs

barks

animal

pet

Chase

Got

Bit

In May

FIDO

my

dog

Cats

Knowledge

about dogs

slide4

Modern Classic Theory

transfer

to LTS

(add new

Structure)

Saw on

List

Tuesday

Oct 8

Dog

visual

shallow

features

letters

D

O

G

sounds

“d”

“o”

“g”

dog

word

deep

Dog Memories

Saw

“Lassie”

On TV

meanings

4-legs

barks

animal

pet

Chase

Got

Bit

In May

FIDO

my

dog

Cats

Knowledge

about dogs

slide5

What is long-term store?

General

Knowledge

Memory for

events in

your life

Skills

slide6

What is long-term store?

General

Knowledge

Memory for

events in

your life

Skills

  • Episodic Memory
  • I remember the time when I forgot the
  • classroom combination
  • I remember the time when I fell off my tricycle
slide7

What is long-term store?

General

Knowledge

Memory for

events in

your life

Skills

Semantic Memory

I know that 8 is a number.

I know that Walt Disney created Mickey Mouse.

slide8

What is long-term store?

General

Knowledge

Memory for

events in

your life

Skills

Procedural Memory

I know how to play tennis

I know how to speak

slide9

What is long-term store?

General

Knowledge

Memory for

events in

your life

Skills

Semantic and episodic memory together are

called Declarative or Propositional Memory.

They store meaning.

slide10

Forgetting from LTS

Decay theory

Memories fade with time

Interference Theory

Memories are lost as a direct result of

other learning

New learning interferes with old learning

Same issue as in extinction

decay vs. inhibition

slide11

Minami & Dallenbach (1946

Cockroach Experiment

Shock

Trained until learn to avoid shock

Normal

Activity

Sensory

Deprivation

slide12

100%

100%

1 2 3 8

interval (hours)

1 2 3 8

(hours)

In Box

Savings

in

relearning

Normal

Activity

Memory is lost due to interference

Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924) (humans)

after

Sleep

(60%)

%

correct

recall

(10%)

awake

slide13

Studies of Interference

Similarity Principle

The more similar any two events are,

the more their memories interfere with

each other

Example

B C P T V E C (hard)

Y B S K X O P (easy)

slide14

… Event Event EventEventEvent Event …..

your life

PI

RI

PI

RI

attempt

to

recall

PI = proactive interference

RI = retroactive interference

slide15

Similarity in paired-associate learning

The retroactive interference (RI) paradigm

Experimental Group Control Group

List 1 List 1

DAX-quickly same items

ZIL-happy

YOV-trouble

learn until perfect

List 2

DAX-soldier

ZIL-traffic rest

YOV-heavy

Test for DAX-? DAX-?

List 1 ZIL-? ZIL?

YOV-? YOV-?

control group is better

slide16

RI experiment shows that new learning interferes

with old learning

Does old learning interfere with new learning?

YES,

Proactive Interference (PI) Experiment

Experiment

Group

Learn List 1

Learn List 2

Recall List 2

Control

Group

Rest

Learn List 2

Recall List 2

Control group does better

slide17

Release from P.I. (Wickens)

change

category

%

correct

don’t

change

category

| | | |

1 2 3 4

Trials

  • Proactive interference increases from trial
  • 1 to 3
  • But if items on 4th trial are very different,
  • recall is better
  • Shows that similarity causes interference
slide18

Which changes give the biggest release from PI?

Hi-release

animals - furniture

numbers - letters

“good” words - “bad” words

Lo-release

2-syllable — 3-syllable

ink color

A change in meaning produces biggest release

slide19

What release from PI experiments tell us

  • similar things interfere in memory
  • the similarity that matters in recall from
  • LTS is semantic
  • Therefore, words are stored in LTS in
  • terms of their meaning
slide20

Do we ever really forget?

Once in LTS, does it stay?

Loftus & Loftus (1980)

Which do you believe?

(1) Everything we learn is permanently in the

mind, although sometimes particular

details are not accessible. With

hypnosis or other techniques, inaccessible

details could be recovered.

(2) Some details that we learn may be permanently

lost from memory. Such details could

never be recovered because they are no

longer there.

slide21

Are these reasons for

believing memory

is permanent?

  • Penfield’s brain stimulation experiments
  • hypnosis
  • spontaneous recovery of memories
  • psychoanalysis
  • From Loftus & Loftus (1980)
slide22

Loftus’s Experiment

Subjects view a

series of slides

STOP

STOP

slide23

Yield

Sign

Phase 2

Subjects asked 20 questions

“Did you see a tree?”

“What color was the car?”

“Did another car come up behind the red car when

it went through the yield sign?”

(misleading question)

Phase 3

Forced choice recognition test

A or B?

Stop

Sign

slide24

Results of Stop-Yield Experiment

If you got misleading question, 80% picked the

wrong slide

If you did not get the misleading question

(control group), subjects picked the

correct slide

Loftus’s Interpretation

old memory (stop sign) is replaced by

the new information (yield sign)

OLD MEMORY IS GONE

BUT…..

This experiment does not prove the old

memory is gone, only that it was not retrieved.

slide25

Is Old Memory Really Gone?

Other experiments by Loftus

Subjects told afterward that they may have been

fooled;

90% still thought it was a yield sign

Offered $25 if they got it right

Still got it wrong

Hypnosis (Putnam, 1979)

made subjects worse

slide26

STOP

McCloskey & Zaragoza’s Criticism

You don’t forget the stop sign, you fail to retrieve

it

When you fail to retrieve it you must guess on the

test

AND subjects are biased to guess “yield” because

they remember the question

“yield

sign”

slide27

McCloskey & Zaragoza’s Experiment

Phase 1

Slides - petty theft of money

man reaches in tool box under a

hammer to steal money

Phase 2

Misled Group

Read transcript

of event that

mentions

“screwdriver”

Control Group

Transcript

mentions

“hammer”

slide28

Phase 3

Half of the subjects in control and misled

group are tested on the original Loftus procedure

Was it a hammer or a screwdriver?

The misled group chooses hammer38%

The control group chooses hammer72%

The other half of the subjects are tested

on a modified procedure

Was it a hammer or a wrench?

misled group “hammer”72%

control group “hammer”75%

Original memory of “hammer” is NOT

destroyed in misled condition

slide29

Meaning

Semantics is the study of meaning.

Problem:

What is the mental representation of the

meaning of a sentence?

Color

of grass

=

“Grass is green”

Methods

Linguistics

Artificial Intelligence

Experimental Psychology

slide30

Meaning of a sentence = a set of propositions

Proposition = “a basic idea”

a unit of meaning just large enough to be

true or false

Propositions

ROSES ARE RED

MY DOG HAS FLEAS

GRASS IS PURPLE

Not propositions

DOGS

PURPLE

slide31

A proposition isn’t a sentence;

It’s a thought

“The book is red”

“The book’s color is red”

“Das buch ist rot” (German)

Complex sentences express more than one

proposition

“The big brown dog is hungry”

1. DOG1 is BIG

2. DOG1 is BROWN

3. DOG1 is HUNGRY

“Jane and Bill are students”

express

the same

proposition

slide32

Formal Treatment

Proposition = Abstract unit of meaning that

expresses a relation among

concepts

concepts

“John”

“dogs’

“Fido”

“justice”

(nouns or

noun phrases)

Relations

(verbs or verb-

like words

or phrases)

“gives”

“likes”

“is next to”

Concepts

Relation

IS NEXT TO (JOHN, BILL)

LIKES (JOHN, BILL)

likes

JOHN

BILL

slide33

CHAIR

TABLE

BACK

FLAT

Semantic Memory

(General Knowledge

Basic Facts

“Generic” Memory)

contains propositions

concepts

is

has

relation

slide34

Furniture

Sitting

Back

Flat

4 legs

Table

Chair

Semantic Memory

Network of Propositions

is

is

used for

is

has

has

has

slide35

Furniture

Sitting

Back

Flat

4 legs

Table

Chair

Semantic Memory

Network of Propositions

is

is

used for

is

has

has

has

Cognitive Economy Question

FOUND IN (CHAIRS, BUILDINGS)

FOUND IN (TABLES, BUILDINGS)

FOUND IN (FURNITURE, BUILDINGS)

How are these propositions represented in

semantic memory?

slide36

Furniture

Buildings

Sitting

Back

Flat

4 legs

Table

Chair

Semantic Memory

Network of Propositions

found in

is

is

found in

used for

is

has

has

has

found in

One possibility: Non-economical Storage

Store everything separately

FOUND IN (TABLE, BUILDINGS)

FOUND IN (CHAIR, BUILDINGS)

FOUND IN (FURNITURE, BUILDINGS)

slide37

Furniture

Buildings

Sitting

Back

Flat

4 legs

Table

Chair

Semantic Memory

Network of Propositions

found in

is

is

used for

is

has

has

has

Other possibility: Economical Storage

Store only what is necessary. If you can

infer something from what is already stored,

don’t store it.

STORE: FOUND IN (FURNITURE, BUILDINGS)

DON’T FOUND IN (TABLE, BUILDINGS)

STOREFOUND IN (CHAIR, BUILDINGS)

slide38

skin

animal

has

bird

feathers

is

fly

has

can

sing

canary

is

can’t

is

yellow

ostrich

can

is

Economical Storage - only what’s necessary

Non-economical Storage - store everything

Collins & Quillian (p. 417)

slide39

SUPPORTS

skin

animal

has

bird

feathers

is

fly

has

can

sing

canary

is

can’t

is

yellow

ostrich

can

is

Economical Storage - only what’s necessary

Non-economical Storage - store everything

Each link adds .08 seconds

“Canaries have

skin”

RT = 1.46 sec

“Canaries can

fly”

RT = 1.38 sec

“Canaries are

yellow”

RT = 1.30 sec

Collins & Quillian (p. 417)

slide40

animal

teeth

fish

gills

shark

Conrad’s Experiment

“A shark has teeth”

“A shark has gills”

Should be

harder

have

is

have

is

But results showed

“A shark has teeth” is faster

Conclude

Cognitive economy does not occur for

frequently associated properties

slide41

animal

teeth

fish

gills

teeth

shark

Conrad’s Experiment

“A shark has teeth”

“A shark has gills”

Should be

harder

have

is

have

is

have

But results showed

“A shark has teeth” is faster

Conclude

Cognitive economy does not occur for

frequently associated properties

slide42

Semantic Memory

Knowledge of facts

is

canary bird

Episodic Memory

Personal events

“I remember going bowling

last October”

Are episodic and semantic memories

part of the same memory system. Or are they

separate kinds of memory:

Our intuitions suggest that they are different.

slide43

The relation between

episodic and semantic memories

Events in your life

Memory

for

the specific

event

(episodic memory)

Memory for

the facts that

you learn

from events

(semantic memory)

slide44

Yellows

Amethyst

Semantic memories are strong

(often used)

Many episodic memories are hard to retrieve

(not often used, much more interference)

Source amnesia (Thorn, 1960)

We can forget the event, but remember

the facts

Semantic Part

turns

Episodic Part

learned

I

May 10)

hypnotized

(while

slide45

Source amnesia in hypnosis

  • (Thorn, 1960)
  • subjects hypnotized
  • given general test of semantic memory, e.g.,
  • “An amethyst is a blue or purple
  • gem. What color does it turn when
  • heated?”
  • subject told “yellow”
  • subject awakened
  • Asked same question.
  • Gets it right, but doesn’t know the source
  • forgot episodic (event)
  • remembered semantic (general knowledge)
slide46

George

Washington

First

President

was

2nd

grade

teacher

said

(Jan 10 in school)

slide47

George

Washington

George

Washington

First

President

First

President

was

2nd

grade

teacher

said

(Jan 10 in school)

Older

Sister

said

(May 3 at home)

slide48

George

Washington

George

Washington

George

Washington

First

President

First

President

First

President

was

2nd

grade

teacher

said

(Jan 10 in school)

Older

Sister

said

(May 3 at home)

read

I

(June 10 at home)

slide49

Semantic and episodic memory are in the

same memory system.

But we often forget episodic memories

because they have more interference and are used

less often.

slide50

Thirsty

Windows

Circular

Generation

Triumph

Dilute

Scorpion

Perfume

Mortal

Gothic

Spices

Bridal

N

O

S

R

L

slide51

1. Mor

2. Wea

3. Tri

4. Col

5. Gra

6. Sco

7. Bri

8. Tan

9. Dil

10. Sca

11. Gar

12. Spi

13. Win

14. Per

15. Tra

16. Cir

17. Mar

18. Par

19. Gen

20. Dis

21. Thi

22. Ban

23. Sal

24. Got

slide52

1. Mortal S

2. Weapon N

3. Triumph S

4. Colorful N

5. Gradually N

6. Scorpion S

7. Bridal S

8. Tangent N

9. Dilute S

10. Scanner N

11. Garlic N

12. Spices S

13. Windows S

14. Perfume S

15. Trailer N

16. Circular S

17. Marble N

18. Parent N

19. Generation S

20. Disown N

21. Thirsty S

22. Banker N

23. Salary N

24. Gothic S

slide53

Implicit Memory

Changes in performance on a task due to

a study episode even though you are not

trying to remember the items

examples

Stem completion S C O

Fragment completionS _ O _ _ I _ N

Explicit Memory

Your ability to intentionally remember

items from a study episode

examples

Recall

Recognition

slide54

Read these sentences

 THE GIRL BROKE THE WINDOW.

Test reading a week later

 THE GIRL BROKE THE WINDOW.

Result:

Backward sentences are read faster if

they were backwards the first time

implicit or explicit?

Ask subjects to judge whether each sentence is

presented the same way as before

implicit or explicit?

slide55

Processing Dissociations

Some variables affect explicit, but not implicit

memory, or vice versa

Example

Level of processing affects explicit,

but not implicit memory

Graf & Mandler (1984)

Study words

Rate “liking” count “enclosures”

(deep) (shallow)

Test

Stem completion Cued recall

(implicit) (explicit)

Processing level Deep processing

has no effect leads to better

memory

slide56

Roediger & Blaxton (1987)

Modality (visual vs. auditory words)

Implicit memory is reduced if

the modality is changed from

study to test

STUDY TEST

fragment completion

hear “morbid”

OR

see MORBID M _ R _ _ D

Fragment completion is worse when you hear the

word

Explicit memory (e.g., recall) is not affected by

modality of the words

slide57

Other Dissociations

Weldon & Roediger (1987)

Study words & pictures

DOG PENCIL CAR

TEST

fragment completion free recall

implicit explicit

P _ _ C _ _

fragment completion pictures are

is better only for recalled better

studied words than words

Results are opposite for implicit and explicit

slide58

Implicit memory (stem completion)

  • Changes in performance on a task due to
  • a study episode
  • not affected by level of processing
  • is reduced when modality of the word changes
  • does not occur when studied episode involves
  • pictures
  • Explicit memory (recall, recognition)
  • Intentionally remembering items from a
  • study episode
  • strongly affected by level of processing
  • not reduced when modality changes
  • is better when the studied episode is pictures
  • instead of words
slide59

Why do implicit and explicit memory test act

differently?

The tests reflect memory for different information

MORBID

word

meaning

means

MORBID

M O R B I D

letters

slide60

Event

Psych

248

Nov 6

Why do implicit and explicit memory test act

differently?

The tests reflect memory for different information

MORBID

explicit memory

add new event to LTS

word

meaning

on

in

means

MORBID

M O R B I D

implicit memory

strengthen

existing

connections

letters