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Electrons In Atoms. Electromagnetic Radiation. Form of energy that exhibits both wavelike behaviors and particle behaviors . Electromagnetic Spectrum. Shows all forms of electromagnetic radiation. Quanta. Electrons gain/lose energy in set increments only

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electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Form of energy that exhibits both wavelike behaviors and particle behaviors
electromagnetic spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Shows all forms of electromagnetic radiation
quanta
Quanta
  • Electrons gain/lose energy in set increments only
  • Each set amount of energy is called a quantum
  • Lost energy is released as electromagnetic radiation, with more energy = higher frequency
photoelectric effect
Photoelectric Effect
  • Emission of electrons from metal’s surface when light of specific frequency shines on surface

light

e-

METAL

wrap up 1
Wrap-Up #1
  • If electrons will only be emitted by light of high energy, which of the following is more likely to release electrons?
    • Blue light with low intensity (dim)
    • Red light with high intensity (bright)
    • Radio waves with high intensity
bohr model electron states
Bohr Model – Electron States
  • Ground State
    • Lowest energy state of an electron
    • Where the electron is “naturally”
  • Excited State
    • State when an electron gains energy
    • Only exists while energy is being absorbed by the atom
      • Glow in the dark materials – the electrons absorb energy from light and re-release it as light when its surroundings are dark
bohr model
Bohr Model

E1 = lowest energy level

E3 > E2 > E1

E1

E2

E3

ground state to excited state
in ground state, no energy radiated

in excited state, electrons jump to higher energy level (because they’ve absorbed energy from an external source)

electrons go from high E level to low E level

photon emitted

Ground State to Excited State

4

6

5

4

3

3

2

Energy of atom

2

1

1

atomic orbitals
Atomic Orbitals
  • Volume surrounding the nucleus in which an electron is 90% likely to be found
principle quantum number n
Principle Quantum Number (n)
  • Indicates the energy level an electron is on
    • Use periodic table to tell
    • The period number corresponds to the principle quantum number (n = 1,2,3…)
energy orbitals
Energy Orbitals
  • Shape of orbital that tells the path of the electrons
    • 4 orbitals: s, p, d, f
    • The letter tells you the shape of the orbital
s orbital
s orbital
  • Shape: electrons travel in a sphere
s orbital1
s orbital

3s

1s

2s

The greater the energy level, the bigger the orbital

p orbital
p orbital
  • Shape: dumbbell or figure 8 shaped
d orbital
d orbital
  • Shape – double dumbbells or a dumbell with a ring around it
electron configuration
Electron Configuration
  • Description of the arrangement of electrons in an atom
  • Allows us to visualize where the electrons in an atom can be found
rules governing electron configurations
Rules Governing Electron Configurations

1) Aufbau Principle – electrons occupy lowest energy orbital available

- fill up level 1 first, then level 2, etc.

2) Pauli Exclusion Principle – there is a max number of electrons that occupy a single orbital (2) and they must have opposite spin

rules governing electron configurations1
Rules Governing Electron Configurations

3) Hund’s Rule – if orbitals have equal energy, one e- will go in each orbital before doubling up

1

2

3

5

6

4

rules governing electron configurations2
Rules Governing Electron Configurations

3b) Hund’s Rule – all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin

Yes

Yes

Yes

NO

NO

NO

divisions of orbitals
Divisions of Orbitals
  • s orbital – 1 sublevel (2 e- max)
  • p orbital – 3 sublevels (6 e- max)
  • d orbital – 5 sublevels (10 e- max)
  • f orbital – 7 sublevels (14 e- max)
orbital diagram
Orbital Diagram
  • Nitrogen
  • How many electrons?

7

1s

2s

2p

orbital diagram1
Orbital Diagram
  • Silicon
  • How many electrons?

14

1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

wrap up 2 orbital diagram
Wrap-Up #2: Orbital Diagram
  • Copper
  • How many electrons?

29

1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

4s

3d

electron configuration notation
Electron Configuration Notation
  • Oxygen (8 e-)
  • Sulfur (16 e-)
  • Vanadium (23 e-)

2

2

4

2s

2p

1s

2

2

6

2

4

2s

2p

3s

3p

1s

2

2

6

2

6

2

3

2s

2p

3s

3p

4s

3d

1s

noble gas notation
Noble Gas Notation
  • Rule: start from previous noble gas, then write the configuration
  • Oxygen
  • Sulfur
  • Vanadium

2

4

[He]

2s

2p

2

4

[Ne]

3s

3p

2

3

[Ar]

4s

3d

valence electrons
Valence Electrons
  • Electrons in outer most energy level

- located in highest s & p orbitals

N:

Mg:

Se:

2

2

3

5 valence e-

1s

2s

2p

2

2

6

2

2 valence e-

1s

2s

2p

3s

2

2

6

2

6

2

10

4

1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

4s

3d

4p

6 valence e-

electron dot structure
Electron Dot Structure
  • Shows valence electrons in a diagram
  • Nitrogen (5 v.e.)
  • Magnesium (2 v.e.)
  • Selenium (6 v.e.)

N

Mg

Se