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JOINT VENTURE. INTRODUCTION. A joint venture is when two or more businesses pool their resources and expertise to achieve a particular goal, and were the risks and rewards are also been shared amongst the enterprise.

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  • A joint venture is when two or more businesses pool their resources and expertise to achieve a particular goal, and were the risks and rewards are also been shared amongst the enterprise.
  • In sectors where 100 percent FDI is not allowed like India, a joint venture is the best medium, offering a low risk option for companies wanting to enter into the vibrant Indian market.
  • For any successful JV into India, compatibility is important for both the parties.
  • To maintain a successful joint venture in India both of the associated parties should have a long term goal and conditions should be written in the clauses in JV.

Reasons for JV

  • Overseas business
  • Business expansion
  • Development of new products or moving into new markets

What can a JV give?

  • More resources
  • Greater capacity
  • Increased technical expertise
  • Access to established markets and distribution channels
methods of joint ventures in india
Methods of joint ventures in India
  • Equity joint venture: The equity joint venture is an understanding whereby an independent legal entity is created in accordance with the agreement of two or more parties.
  • Contractual joint venture: The contractual joint venture might be used where the organization of a detached legal entity is not needed or the creation of such a separate legal entity is not feasible.

When you decide to create a joint venture, you should set out the terms and conditions in a written agreement. This will help prevent any misunderstandings once the joint venture is up and running.

A written agreement should cover:

  • The structure of the joint venture. e.g. whether it will be a separate business in its own right
  • The objectives of the joint venture
  • The financial contributions by each.
  • Transfer any assets or employees to the joint venture
  • Ownership of intellectual property created by the joint venture
  • Management and control. E.g. respective responsibilities and processes to be followed
  • Sharing of profits & losses and liabilities.
  • Resolution of disputes amongst the partners if any.
  • Exit strategy options
  • The world’s largest retailer, Wal-Mart, entered into a 50:50 joint venture with Bharti Enterprises for the wholesale cash-and-carry business in India that will roll out 10-15 such outlets over seven years. This also covers a supply chain and back-end logistics.
  • Nissan Motors signed a 50:50 JV deal with Ashok Leyland to make commercial vehicles, engine and components in India.


  • Provide opportunity to gain new capacity and expertise.
  • Allow companies to enter related businesses or new geographic markets or gain new technological knowledge.
  • Access to greater resources, including specialized staff and technology, sharing of risks with a venture partner.
  • Joint ventures can be flexible. For example, a joint venture can have a limited life span and only cover part of what you do, thus limiting both your commitment and the business' exposure.
  • In the era of divestiture and consolidation, JV’s offer a creative way for companies to exit from non-core businesses.
  • Companies can gradually separate a business from the rest of the organization, and eventually, sell it to the other parent company. Roughly 80% of all joint ventures end in a sale by one partner to the other.


  • It takes time and effort to build the right relationship and partnering with another business.
  • The objectives of the venture are not 100 per cent clear and communicated to everyone involved.
  • There is an imbalance in levels of expertise, investment or assets brought into the venture by the different partners.
  • Different cultures and management styles result in poor integration and co-operation.
  • The partners don't provide enough leadership and support in the early stages.
  • Success in a joint venture depends on through research and analysis of the objectives.
some of the major points that are to be taken into consideration
  • Management: It is important to have the opinion over the proposed management structure and to categorize the work of both the parties.
  • Royalty payments: For the automatic route, RBI permits lump sum payments not exceeding US$2 million. Royalty payable is restricted to 5 percent for local sales and 8 percent for exports, without any constraint on the period of the royalty payments and are calculated according to standard conditions.
  • Profit repatriation: India allows free of charge repatriation of profits once the entire domestic & central (tax) liabilities and other compulsions are met.

Exit strategy: The general exit options are:

  • Buy-sell agreements: In a buy-sell agreement, either IJV party will decide to purchase the interest of the other by sending a buy-sell trigger notice to the other party specifying a cash purchase price at which the offered party is willing to buy the assets.
  • Unilateral sale rights: Although unilateral sales rights are not so common, in some instances, one or both partners may have the unilateral right to sell their interest in the venture to a third party.

Put/call rights: Put/call rights are incorporated in an IJV agreement when one partner wants to liquidate as soon as possible, while the other partner wants to hold the venture assets long-term. A "call right" would give the foreign firm the right, but not the obligation to buy the IJV from the local partner at a certain time (triggering event) for a certain price. Conversely, a "put right" would force the local partner to buy its interest when the foreign firm decides that it wants to liquidate.

  • Termination of operations and the liquidation and closure of the venture.