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Non-thermal emission from Gamma-Ray Burst SNe. X-rays. RADIO. …the Science across the rainbow…. Raffaella Margutti Harvard University. GRB- SNe. Non-thermal emission: --Tracks the fastest ejecta --Properties of the jet. --Tracks the slow ejecta

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slide1

Non-thermal emission from Gamma-Ray Burst SNe

X-rays

RADIO

…the Science across the rainbow…

Raffaella Margutti

Harvard University

slide2

GRB-SNe

Non-thermal emission:

--Tracks the fastest ejecta

--Properties of the jet

--Tracks the slow ejecta

-- Properties of the progenitor (Mej, M_Ni)

γ-rays

Log (Lum)

X-rays

RADIO

Optical-UV

OPTICAL AFTERGLOW

Log (Time)

40 days

10-20 days

5-1000 s

0.1 d

1 d

slide3

CE

SN

Isotropic emission

GRB-jet

Early-time X-rays

Jet deceleration

Optical - X-ray + RADIO afterglow

slide4

GRB-SNe

NON THERMAL EMISSION

--Tracks the fastest ejecta

--Properties of the jet

γ-rays

Log (Lum)

RADIO

X-rays

CE

Optical-UV

40 days

10-20 days

1 d

slide5

What’s peculiar about

GRB-SNe?

Hypernovae

(Type Ic)

Relativistic

(Soderberg 2010)

SN2009bb

SN2002ap

SN1994I

Broad Line SN

slide6

Hydrogen Poor

Super Luminous SNe

(e.g. Gal-Yam 2012)

7x1043 erg/s

PS1-10kw

PS1-10awh

2007bi

Hypernovae

(Type Ic)

Relativistic ejecta

(Soderberg ref)

SN2009bb

SN2002ap

SN1994I

Broad Line SN (ref)

slide7

Asymmetric

MNi

Mazzali 2005

Sanders 2012

Large vphot

Hjorth 2011

slide8

Energy partitioning

Relativistic

Soderberg 2006

slide9

γ-rays

OPTICAL

980425

(1998bw)

120422A

(2012bz)

20

0

100316D

(2010bh)

060218

(2006aj)

slide10

X-rays

980425/1998bw

030329/2003dh

031203/2003lw

060218/2006aj

091127/2009nz

100316D/2010bh

120422A/2012bz

0.001

Cosmological

0.01

t-(1.5or 2)

t-1

t-0.2

Sub-luminous

slide11

X-rays

12bz

Mildly Relativistic

(Soderberg 2010)

Non-GRB

slide12

SUPERNOVAE

Radio

GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

030329(2003dh)

031203 (2003lw)

980425(1998bw)

060218 (2006aj)

Sanders 2012

100316D (2010bh)

slide13

Xrays-Radio

X-rays

Cosmological GRBs (including 030329/2003dh)

2009bb

Relativistic

100316D (2010bh)

Radio

060218 (2006aj)

2008D

Common Ibc Explosions

slide14

Take-away list:

1.

Late-time X-rays clearly distinguish GRB/SNe also from relativistic SNe with much brighter radio emission

slide15

Xrays

Late time (0.5-10 days) temporal DECAY RATE

<1 keV

dN ≈ ν-Γ

Average decay= 1.5

SPECTRUM

060218 (2006aj)

100316D (2010bh)

060218 (2006aj)

100316D (2010bh)

  • SLOW late-time decay

Typical Index= 2

  • EXCEPTIONALLY SOFT X-ray emission
slide16

EngineOFF

EngineON

MILD decay + Extremely SOFT emission

100316D/2010bh

Ambient medium interaction

Slower blob

Collision

Faster

blob

EXTERNAL SHOCK

Central

engine

STANDARD GRB MODEL

Synchrotron

Pre Burst

Prompt Emission

Afterglow

slide17

Synchrotron emission

Fireball Dynamics

060218

(2006aj)

100316D

(2010bh)

WIND, slow cooling

ISM, slow cooling

ISM, WIND

Jet Spreading

Not synchrotron

Granot 2002

slide18

Take-away list:

1.

Late-time X-rays clearly distinguish GRB/SNe also from relativistic SNe with much brighter radio emission …

2.

…BUT they are NOT consistent with synchrotron emission from the deceleration of the GRB jet in the ambient medium (different from GRBs)

slide19

100316D/ 2010bh

Synchrotron

X-rays

Radio

Radio

SED, t=36 days

X-rays

slide20

Take-away list:

1.

Late-time X-rays clearly distinguish GRB/SNe also from relativistic SNe with much brighter radio emission …

2.

…BUT they are NOT consistent with synchrotron emission from the deceleration of the GRB jet in the ambient medium (different from GRBs)

3.

There is evidence for an EXCESS of X-ray emission with respect to the synchrotron model

slide21

Inverse Compton::

ρ

100316D/2010bh

Donor Star

X-rays

SN EXPLOSION

X-rays

1014

1015

e-

1016

R

Inverse Compton emission

e-

10 days

e-

Shock

37 days

e-

X-rays

Photosphere

e-

X-rays

37 days

slide22

Take-away list:

1.

Late-time X-rays clearly distinguish GRB/SNe also from relativistic SNe with much brighter radio emission …

2.

…BUT they are NOT consistent with synchrotron emission from the deceleration of the GRB jet in the ambient medium (different from GRBs)

3.

There is evidence for an EXCESS of X-ray emission with respect to the synchrotron model

4.

The X-ray EXCESS of emission is not consistent with IC (up-scattering of the SN optical photons by the SN shock )

slide23

Accretion on BH

100316D/2010bh

CE

Inverse Compton emission

10 days

37 days

Magnetar spin-down

slide24

Take-away list:

1.

Late-time X-rays clearly distinguish GRB/SNe also from relativistic SNe with much brighter radio emission …

2.

…BUT they are NOT consistent with synchrotron emission from the deceleration of the GRB jet in the ambient medium (different from GRBs)

3.

There is evidence for an EXCESS of X-ray emission with respect to the synchrotron model

4.

The X-ray EXCESS of emission is not consistent with IC (up-scattering of the SN optical photons by the SN shock )

5.

We suggest that this is emission from the CE (Magnetar or BH). Whatever is the physical source, our analysis indicates that this emission is NOT strongly beamed

slide26

Very nearby GRB/SN

Cosmological GRBs

GRB jet

Jet

Jet

CE

X-rays

CE

CE

Thanks!

-- Nearby

-- Less powerful jets

slide27

Take-away list:

1.

Late-time X-rays clearly distinguish GRB/SNe also from relativistic SNe with much brighter radio emission …

2.

…BUT they are NOT consistent with synchrotron emission from the deceleration of the GRB jet in the ambient medium (different from GRBs)

3.

There is evidence for an EXCESS of X-ray emission with respect to the synchrotron model

4.

The X-ray EXCESS of emission is not consistent with IC (up-scattering of the SN optical photons by the SN shock )

5.

We suggest that this is emission from the CE (Magnetar or BH). Whatever is the physical source, our analysis indicates that this emission is NOT strongly beamed