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Training Delivery: Tradition Instructional Approaches and Emerging Technologies. Dr. Steve Training & Development INP6325. Instructional Techniques. What instructional technique works best? No “one size fits all” solutions, only generalities

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Training delivery tradition instructional approaches and emerging technologies

Training Delivery: Tradition Instructional Approaches and Emerging Technologies

Dr. Steve

Training & Development


Instructional techniques
Instructional Techniques

  • What instructional technique works best?

    • No “one size fits all” solutions, only generalities

    • Ex: don’t train motor skills using lecture format

  • Why?

    • Lack of generalizability – most empirical research tests a particular technique for a particular skill

    • Criteria used – evaluations tend to focus on learning, not transfer

Choosing instructional techniques
Choosing Instructional Techniques

What do you know about the potential trainees?

  • What training do they currently use?

  • What has/hasn’t worked in the past?

  • What instructional methods are preferred?

Performance support
Performance Support

Continuum of possible performance support mechanisms for learning how to use software

Near to Task

Far From Task


User Guides

Reference Manuals

Help Line

Online Help

Product Affordances



Guidelines for instructional development
Guidelines for Instructional Development*

  • Training Validity:Instructional events that comprise the training method should be consistent with the cognitive, physical, or psychomotor processes that lead to mastery

  • Active Learning: Learner should be induced to produce the capability

    • e.g. practice behaviors, recall info from LTM, apply principles in doing task

  • Feedback Delivery: All available sources of relevant feedback should be used, & should be accurate, credible, timely, informative & constructive

  • Self-efficacy: Instructional processes should enhance trainee self-efficacy and expectations that the training will be successful and lead to valued outcomes

  • Trainee Aptitude: Training methods should be adapted to differences in trainee aptitudes and prior knowledge

*Adapted from research by Campbell

More guidelines in Swezey and Llaneras (p.546-7)

Training delivery
Training Delivery

On-the-Job Training (OJT)

  • Most common form of training

  • Typically unstructured

    • Often used as the control group in training evaluations

    • If experimental training not significantly better, OJT is the default

    • Caution: OJT may actually prevent optimal performance and could cost organization in other ways (job satisfaction, turnover, downtime, etc.)

Training delivery1
Training Delivery

On-the-Job Training (OJT)

  • Practice with actual equipment, in actual setting, under operational conditions

    • Ex: Food servers, cashiers, retail sales, professors

Training delivery2
Training Delivery

Embedded Training– controlled exercises called up and worked on by trainees operating actual equipment (in training mode)

  • Provides employees opportunities to practice skills in a variety of common situations to build automaticity

  • Allows employees to practice skills relevant to situations that might occur infrequently on the job (meltdown at nuclear power plant).

    • Sometimes referred to as “stimulation” because rather than simulate the equipment it injects signals (stimuli) into the actual equipment

  • Ex: Paper production monitor (in training mode) indicates jamb, trainee must react quickly

Training delivery3
Training Delivery

Embedded Training

Training delivery4
Training Delivery

Apprenticeship Training – Classroom (or textbook) plus OJT shadowing

  • Common among skilled trades (plumbers, electricians, carpenters, sorcerers, jedi warriors

  • Apprentice shadows an experienced worker for a given time period

  • Upon completion, apprentice may be given a test

    • 1937 national Apprenticeship Act created by the Federal bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (DOL) to ensure apprenticeships were safe and fair.

Training delivery5
Training Delivery

Apprenticeship Training

Training delivery6
Training Delivery

Lecture – Classroom style delivery of training

Training media

Click for bad example of Audio Air Force Training Guide

Training Media

  • Audio-Visual (AV) Material– videos, films, slide presentations, used to present info multiple times

Training media1
Training Media

Programmed Instruction – based on work of behaviorists (e.g., Skinner)

  • Ex: Skinner’s teaching machine provides reinforcement for each correct response – gradually eliminates errors

  • Systematically displays information at learner’s own pace

  • Learner is tested at end of each unit

  • Information presented linearly or hierarchically

    • Linear – finish one section go to next in sequence

    • Hierarchical or Branching – correct responses lead down one branch, incorrect responses lead down different branch

      • More advanced learner could move thru larger chunks of info

  • Training media2
    Training Media

    Programmed Instruction

    Training media3
    Training Media

    Example of CAI

    Interactive Multi-Media – computer driven training system using text, graphics, video, auditory information

    • Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) / Computer-Based Training (CBT)

    Training media4
    Training Media

    Interactive Multi-Media - Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), Interactive Courseware (ICW), Computer Based Training (CBT)

    • Trainee interacts directly with computer

    • Computer presents instructional material

    • Computer engages trainee in question and answer

    • Provides immediate feedback/help identify sources of mistakes

    • May store trainee progress/performance data

    • Can adapt to individual differences in trainees

      • May adapt instruction based on analysis of trainee answers

    • May be used as tutorial or “drill & practice” (no material presented)

    • Tutorial may serve as stand-alone instruction

    Training media5
    Training Media

    Computer-Assisted Instruction

    • Research findings:

      • Takes 300 hrs to produce 1 hr of CAI training

        • Compare to 30 hrs for every 1 hr of classroom instruction

        • Limited research database on learning with CAI, research focus often on technology

        • Some studies show CAI faster than conventional methods

        • Effectiveness similar to programmed instruction, but learn in less time

        • Possible Hawthorne effect is threat to generalizability

          • Traninees enjoy new technology, but novelty wears off

    Training media6
    Training Media

    Interactive Multi-Media – (CAI, CBT, ICW)

    Training media7
    Training Media

    Simulation – imitation of actual environment

    – imitation of the real environment

    Training system fidelity
    Training System Fidelity

    • Fidelity – realism of the training device

    • Physical Fidelity – how realistic training device appears

    • Functional Fidelity – how well device trains concepts

    • Fidelity Issues:

      • Expense – more realism, greater cost

      • Necessity – many tasks can be learned as well or better by simplifying task in training (lowered fidelity)

      • Negative transfer – if training environment is very close to real environment, then things that are different may lead to negative transfer.

    Training media8
    Training Media

    Virtual Reality – simulated 3-dimensionally-modeled, interactive, learning environment

    Training media9
    Training Media

    Distance Learning – use of audio and data links to present training to multiple sites simultaneously

    Training media10
    Training Media

    Ex: Human Factors Course

    Web-Based Instruction

    • Training delivered(mainly text-based) via the internet or intranet

    Training media11
    Training Media

    Intelligent Tutor



    Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Computer-based individualized instruction that diagnoses, then addresses, learner weaknesses

    Attributes of intelligent tutors
    Attributes of Intelligent Tutors

    • Generative – the capacity to generate appropriate instructional interactions at run time, based on learner performance

    • Mixed-initiative – the capacity to initiate interactions with a learner as well as to interpret and respond usefully to learner-initiated interactions (natural dialogue)

    • Interactive – the provision of appropriately contextualized, domain relevant and engaging learning activities

    • Student Modeling – the capability to assess the current state of a learner’s knowledge and the implied capability to do something instructionally useful based on the assessment

    • Expert Modeling – the capability to model expert performance and the implied capability to do something useful based on the assessment

    • Instructional Modeling – the capability to make pedagogical inferences and decisions based on the changing state of the student model, based on the prescriptions of an expert model, or both

    • Self-improving – the capability to monitor, evaluate, and improve its own teaching performance as a function of experience

    Training media and strategy guidelines
    Training Media and Strategy Guidelines*

    Link to decision aid for selecting training media

    • Simulation:effective for teaching many tasks and skills e.g., perceptual motor skills, conceptual tasks, and team functions

    • Computer-based instruction: provide capability to review and branch and include skill diagnosis and remediation

    • Sound: provides helpful cues in instructional presentations

      • these cues can be satisfied with relatively low fidelity but extremely high timely executions

    • Induce Motivation: Instruction should provide feedback control of both stimulus and reinforcement variables

    • Reduce Cognitive Load:training features should limit the number of stimuli (and extraneous stimuli) presented at any one time to avoid requiring inordinate attention from students

    *Guidelines are a subset adapted from Salvendy’s Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics

    Guidelines for enhancing transfer
    Guidelines for Enhancing Transfer

    • Generalizability:Provide practice in a variety of stimulus situations so that a student may generalize their knowledge

    • Transfer Goal: Use a rote or algorithmic approach if near transfer is the goal of instruction

    • Visual Demonstrations: Training which incorporates visual demonstrations provides positive transfer to real-world situations

    • Guided Training (training wheels): Gradually decrease the amount of cues, prompts, and guides such that none (that would not be found on the job) remain at the end of training

    • Functional vs. Physical fidelity: functional fidelity appears to be a stronger influence in transferring knowledge from the learning environment to the operational setting