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INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTS

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTS

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INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTS

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  1. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QoIafzc0k74

  2. WORLD ORGANIZATIONS • DEMOCRACIES / REPUBLICS • TRADE • WORLD ORGANIZATIONS • DEMOCRACIES / REPUBLICS • TRADE LIBERAL AND SOCIAL THEORIESEvents 7-9

  3. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEvent 20 • Most international conflicts are not settled by military force. • States work together by following rules they develop to govern their interactions. • The rules that govern most interactions in IR are rooted in norms. • International norms are the expectations actors hold about normal international relations. (#1) • moral norms • sovereignty • respect for treaties

  4. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEvent 20

  5. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEvent 20

  6. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEvent 20 • International Organizations (IOs) (#2) • Definition: Concrete, tangible structures with specific functions and missions that try to solve international situations and dilemmas through mutual cooperation. • Characteristics: • Grown more than five fold since 1945 to about 400 • Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) such as the U.N • Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) such as the International Committee of the Red Cross

  7. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEvent 20 • Regional IGOs • European Union • South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) • Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) • African Union

  8. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 20 • Global IGOs • United Nations (UN) • Intelsat (communications satellites) • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

  9. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 20 • THE UN IS A RELATIVELY NEW INSTITUTION, FOUNDED IN OCTOBER 24, 1945 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1cqw8-ongtY • PRINCIPLES (#3) • STATES ARE EQUAL UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW • STATES HAVE FULL SOVEREIGNTY OVER THEIR OWN AFFAIRS • STATES SHOULD HAVE FULL INDEPENDENCE • STATES SHOULD CARRY OUT THEIR INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS WITHOUT COMMITTING AGGRESSION AND BY OBSERVING THE TERMS OF TREATIES THEY SIGN

  10. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 20 • PURPOSES OF THE UNITED NATIONS (#8) • A symbol of international order and global identity • A forum where states promote their views and bring their disputes • A mechanism for conflict resolution in international security affairs • Promotes and coordinates development assistance • A coordinating system for information and planning by hundreds of internal and external agencies and programs and for the publication of international data

  11. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 21 • STRUCTURE OF THE UN (#1) • General Assembly • Coordinates a variety of development programs • UN Security Council • Five great powers and ten rotating member states • Make decisions about international peace and security • UN Secretariat • The executive branch • Led by the secretary-general of the U.N. ANTONIO GUTERRES Portugal

  12. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 21 • THE UN FOLLOWS THE PRINCIPLE OF “THREE PILLARS” (#2) • SECURITY • ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT • HUMAN RIGHTS

  13. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 21 • The Security Council (15 member nations) • Maintains international peace and security • Restores peace when it is broken • Five permanent members (#3) • United States • Russia • China • United Kingdom (Britain) • France • Ten nonpermanent members that rotate onto the Council for a two-year term

  14. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 21 • The power of the Security Council is limited in two major ways: (#9) • The Council’s decisions depend entirely on the interests of its member states • Member states in practice often try to evade or soften the effect of its binding resolutions • Example: trade sanctions are difficult to enforce. A Security Council resolution can be enforced in practice only if enough powerful states care about it.

  15. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 22 • The UN’s own forces have been peacekeeping forces to calm regional conflicts, playing a neutral role between warring forces. (#1) • Mission – to keep peace among states or factions • Authority – granted by the Security Council • Funding – Voted on by the General Assembly • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAXVbtdBu10

  16. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 22

  17. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 22 • FUNCTIONS (#2) • OBSERVERS • Unarmed military officers sent to a conflict area in small numbers simply to watch what happens and report back to the U.N. • Monitor cease-fires, elections, respect for human rights • PEACEKEEPERS • Lightly armed soldiers • Interpose themselves physically between warring factions • Negotiate between opposing parties

  18. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 22 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS CAN THE U.N. KEEP PEACE? http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/520/

  19. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEvent 22 THE SECRETARIAT • The secretary-general of the UN is the closest thing to a “president of the world.” (ANTONIO GUTERRES of PORTUGAL) • The secretary-general is nominated by the Security Council • MISSION (#3a) • Administer UN policy and programs • Personally works with the Security Council • PURPOSES (#3b) • Develops an international civil service of diplomats and bureaucrats working for the secretary-general • Brings together the great power consensus on which Security Council action depends • What is consensus?

  20. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEvent 22 THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY • Made up of all 193 member states on the UN, each with one vote. • The Assembly convenes for special sessions every few years on general topics such as economic cooperation • Purposes (#9) • Accredits national delegations as members of the UN • Controls the finances for UN programs and operations, including peacekeeping • Coordinates UN programs and agencies through the Economic and Social Council

  21. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEvent 23 • UN Environment Program (UNEP) (#1) • Grapples with global environmental strategies • Provides technical assistance to member states • Monitors environmental conditions globally • Develops standards • Recommends alternative energy sources • UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (#2) • Gives technical and financial assistance to poor countries for programs benefiting children • Halloween drive • https://www.youtube.com/user/unicef • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JkSr8Zya_jE

  22. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEvent 23

  23. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 23 • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (#3) • Coordinates efforts to protect, assist, and eventually repatriate the many refugees that flee across international borders each year to escape war and political violence • https://www.youtube.com/user/unhcr • UN Development Program (#4) • Funded by voluntary contributions • Coordinates all UN efforts related to development in poor countries • Over 5,000 projects operating simultaneously • The world’s largest intl. agency for technical development assistance • The UN Conference on Trade and Development (#5) • Negotiates international trade agreements to stabilize commodity prices and promote development

  24. UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMSEvent 23

  25. UN AUTONOMOUS AGENCIESEvent 23 • World Health Organization (WHO) (#10a) • provides technical assistance to improve conditions and conduct major immunization campaigns in poor countries. • https://www.youtube.com/user/who • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (#10b) • provides assistance in agricultural programs. • UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (#10c) • Provides assistance in international educational programs and scientific collaboration. • The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) (#10d) • Give loans, grants, and technical assistance for economic development. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ViWpNyIzSTU

  26. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 23 2015 POVERTY GUIDELINES FOR THE 48 CONTIGUOUS STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA PERSONS IN FAMILY/HOUSEHOLDPOVERTY GUIDELINE 1 $11,770 2 $15,930 3 $20,090 4 $24,250 5 $28,410 6 $32,570 7 $36,730 8 $40,890 For families/households with more than 8 persons, add $4,160 for each additional person.

  27. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 23

  28. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 23

  29. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 24 • INTERNATIONAL LAW (#1) • Derives from tradition and agreements signed by states • Enforcement depends on reciprocity, collective action, and international norms • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ViSYjt-wGw • SOURCES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW (#2) • Treaties • Custom • General principles of law • Legal scholarship • Written arguments of judges and lawyers around the world

  30. INTERNATIONAL LAWEvent 24

  31. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 24 • ENFORCEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW (#3) Why is so difficult to enforce it? • It depends on the power states themselves, individually or collectively, to punish transgressors • Depends heavily on reciprocity • Recognizes in certain circumstances reprisals • Actions that would have been illegal under intl. law may sometimes be legal if taken in response to the illegal actions of another state. • Collective response if a state breaks the law • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35F_Y8v38R8

  32. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 24 THE WORLD COURT • Mission - A legal framework in which states can pursue grievances against each other (#8) • Functions • A branch of the UN • Only states can use it • A panel of 15 judges • Meets in The Hague • Arbitrates issues of secondary importance between countries with friendly relations https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USRUQ6n_xWE

  33. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 25 LAW AND SOVEREIGNTY • The bedrock of international law is respect for the rights of diplomats (#1) • The status of embassies and of an ambassador as an official state representative is explicitly defined in the process of diplomatic recognition (#2)

  34. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 25 • Diplomats are accredited to each other’s governments (they present “credentials”), and thereafter the individuals so defined enjoy certain right to occupy an embassy in a host country (#3) • Some diplomats enjoy diplomatic immunity even when they leave the embassy grounds. They are shielded from arrest when they commit a crime. (#4) Because of this immunity, espionage activities are commonly conducted through the diplomatic corps (#5) • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cAViU7acf3A

  35. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 25 • To break diplomatic relations means to withdraw one’s diplomats from a state and expel that state’s diplomats from one’s own state (#6) • Just wars (#12a) • Legal • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGmLJgojD1E • Wars of aggression (#12b) • Illegal • The legality of war is defined by the UN Charter • Aggression refers to a state’s use of force, or an imminent threat to do so, against another state’s territory or sovereignty (#13)

  36. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 25 • Response to aggression is the only allowable use of military force according to just war doctrine. (#14) • For a war to be morally just, it must be waged for the purpose of responding to aggression (#15) • U.S. –led effort to oust Iraq from Kuwait in 1991

  37. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 26 • HUMAN RIGHTS are the rights of human beings against certain abuses of their own governments (#1) • The concept of human rights arises from at least three sources (#2) • Religion. Nearly every major world religion has at its foundation the idea that humans were created in an image of a higher power and that therefore all humans are to be afforded the dignity and respect that are due that higher power • Political and legal philosophy. The idea of natural law and natural rights. A natural law exists that grant all humans the right to life, liberty, property, and happiness • Political revolutions in the 18th century. • Declaration of Independence in the U.S. • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen in France

  38. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 26 • UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS • Adopted in 1948 by the U.N. General Assembly • Characteristics (#3) • Sets forth international norms regarding behavior by governments • Proclaims that all human beings are born free and equal • Promotes norms such as banning torture, guaranteeing religious and political freedoms and ensuring the right of economic well-being

  39. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 26 • AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL (#9) • Monitor and tries to rectify glaring abuses of human rights • Leads the effort to win basic political rights in authoritarian countries • Why is so difficult to enforce norms of human rights? (#10) • because it involves interfering in a state’s internal affairs • 30 HUMAN RIGHTS • Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  40. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 26 • METHODS OF ENFORCING HUMAN RIGHTS (#11) • Publicity • Alert those that are traveling • Alert those that are doing business with that country • Negative attention • Pressure • Threats to punish the offender in some way through nonviolent means

  41. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 27 • WAR CRIMES are large serious abuses of human rights that occur during war (#1) http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-warcrimes-idUSKCN12L0VX • CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY are inhumane acts and persecutions against civilians on a vast scale in the pursuit of unjust ends (#2)

  42. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 27 • The INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT hear cases of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity from anywhere in the world. (#3)

  43. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEvent 27

  44. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 27

  45. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, ANDHUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 27 • Characteristics of a prisoner of war (POW) (#4) • May not be targeted • May not be killed or mistreated • May not be forced to disclose information beyond their name, rank and serial number • International Committee of the Red Cross (#5) • Provides practical support – such as medical care, food, and letters from home— to civilians caught in wars and to POWs. • https://www.youtube.com/user/icrcfilms

  46. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEVENT 27 • THE LAWS OF WARFARE (#10) • Undermined by the changing nature of war. Conventional wars are giving way to irregular and low-intensity wars • States rarely issue a declaration of war explaining whom they are warring against and the cause of their action • Enemy Combatants https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQ8lKVWSRNI

  47. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTSEvent 27 • THREE FACTORS COMBINED TO SHAKE UP INTERNATIONAL NORMS IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA: (#11) • THE END OF THE COLD WAR • THE SHIFTS IN ECONOMIC POSITION OF VARIOUS REGIONS AND STATES • THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN CREATING A “SMALL WORLD”

  48. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, LAW, AND HUMAN RIGHTS THE END