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Stress: The Constant Challenge Chapter 2. Concepts in Stress. Stressor-- Situations that trigger physical and emotional responses (stress responses) Stress response Stress-- The general physical and emotional state that accompanies the stress response Homeostasis—State of balance.

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concepts in stress
Concepts in Stress
  • Stressor--Situations that trigger physical and emotional responses (stress responses)
  • Stress response
  • Stress--The general physical and emotional state that accompanies the stress response
  • Homeostasis—State of balance
concepts in stress1
Concepts in Stress
  • Eustress—Stress resulting from a pleasant stressor
  • Distress—Stress resulting from an unpleasant stressor
  • Reframing
symptoms of stress physical
Symptoms of Stress: Physical
  • Dry mouth
  • Excessive perspiration
  • Frequent illnesses
  • Gastrointestinal problems
  • Grading of teeth
  • Headaches
  • High blood pressure
  • Pounding heart
  • Stiff neck or aching lower back
symptoms of stress emotional
Symptoms of Stress: Emotional
  • Anxiety/edginess
  • Depression
  • Fatigue
  • Hypervigilance
  • Impulsiveness
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Irritability
  • Trouble remembering things
symptoms of stress behavioral
Symptoms of Stress: Behavioral
  • Crying
  • Disrupted eating habits
  • Disrupted sleeping habits
  • Harsh treatment of others
  • Increased use of tobacco, alcohol, other drugs
  • Problems communicating
  • Sexual problems
  • Social isolation
physical responses to stress
Physical Responses to Stress
  • Actions of the Nervous System
    • Autonomic Nervous System
      • Brain, spinal cord, nerves—involuntary
      • Parasympathetic Division—Relaxed
      • Sympathetic Division—Activated during arousal
        • Norepinephrine—commands the body to mobilize energy
  • Actions of the Endocrine System
    • Release of hormones/chemical messengers into the bloodstream (adrenaline/epinephrine)
endocrine system
Endocrine System


    • Corticotropin releasing factor, CRF
  • Pituitary gland
    • ACTH
  • Adrenal gland
    • Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol
effects of adrenaline on the body
Effects of Adrenaline on theBody
  • Hearing and vision
  • Lungs
  • Heart
  • Liver
  • Sweat glands
  • Pain receptors
  • Altered immune system response
  • Muscles
  • Decreased clot time
  • Increased metabolic rate
  • Digestive system
    • Decreased digestive activity
    • Decreased salivation
the fight or flight reaction in modern life
The Fight or Flight Reaction in Modern Life
  • Today’s stressors elicit preparation for a physical response regardless of the threat—though you may not need it
  • Biological heritage
emotional behavioral responses to stress
Emotional & Behavioral Responses to Stress
  • Effective responses to stress:
    • Talking, Laughing, Exercise and Time Management
  • Ineffective responses to stress:
    • Overeating, procrastination, frustration
why do we react differently
Why Do We React Differently?
  • Personality and Stress
    • Type A—What are possible characteristics?
      • Ultracompetitive, controlling, impatient, aggressive, hostile
      • Risks: anger/cynicism/hostility
    • Type B
      • Relaxed, contemplative, much less hurried
    • Type C
      • Difficulty expressing emotions, anger suppression, feelings of hopelessness, exaggerated stress response to minor cognitive stressors—immune system down
why do we react differently personality continued
Why Do We React Differently?(Personality Continued--)
    • Hardy Personality
      • View potential stressors as challenges and opportunities for growth/learning, typically internal locus of control
  • Somatic Nervous System
    • Manages conscious behavioral responses
  • Cultural Background
  • Gender
  • Past Experiences
general adaptation syndrome g a s
General Adaptation Syndrome(G.A.S.)
  • Alarm
    • Fight or Flight
  • Resistance
  • Exhaustion
  • Allostatic load
    • Effects of stress response
    • Long-term exposure to stress hormones—such as cortisol
psychoneuroimmunology pni
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
  • The study of ….
  • Complex network of nerve and chemical connections between the nervous system, endocrine system and the immune system.
links between stress and specific health conditions
Links Between Stress and Specific Health Conditions
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Weakened Immune System
  • Psychological Problems
  • Other health problems
    • Digestive disorders
    • Headaches
    • Insomnia
    • Injuries
common sources of stress
Common Sources of Stress
  • Life changes
  • Daily hassles
  • College
  • Job
  • Interpersonal
  • Social
  • Environmental
  • Internal
post traumatic stress disorder ptsd
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD)
  • Cognitive, emotional and behavioral reactions to trauma
    • Signs
    • Positive steps to help cope—Pg. 42
techniques for managing stress
Techniques for Managing Stress
  • Social Support
  • Communication
  • Exercise
  • Nutrition
  • Sleep
  • One out of every three Americans has trouble sleeping
  • Over the last century we have cut our sleep 20%
  • Sleep debt—with each night of too little rest, your need for sleep grows until it is irresistible
lack of sleep
Lack of Sleep
  • Can be the cause and effect of excess stress
  • Mental/physical processes deteriorate
  • Headaches
  • Irritable
  • Unable to concentrate
  • Forget things
  • May be more susceptible to illness
  • Levels of stress hormones fluctuate
  • Major cause of fatal accidents
  • Extreme deprivation—hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms, increase in heart attack risk
adequate sleep
Adequate Sleep
  • Improves mood
  • Feelings of competence and self-worth
  • Optimal mental/physical functioning
  • Less likely to have an accident
  • More alert and productive
  • Easier to get along with
what do we do
What Do We Do?
  • REM and non-REM Sleep
  • Non-REM—4 stages
    • Brain waves smaller, more pinched, mundane thoughts, if awakened, you may deny being asleep
    • Brain waves larger—eyes become unresponsive (even if eyelids lifted—you wouldn’t see)
    • Brain waves much slower (5 X > stage 1)
    • Brain waves even slower—the most profound state of unconsciousness, difficult to arouse
what do we do1
What Do We Do?
  • REM
    • Brain waves more resemble pattern sof being awake
    • Muscles slack
    • Pulse and breathing quicken
    • Brain temperature/blood flow increase
    • Eyes dart back and forth
    • If awakened, likely to report dream
what do we do2
What Do We Do?
  • This process/sequence is repeated 4-5 times a night. It takes about an hour to get to stage 4 each time.
  • Between each time is REM sleep (2 hours each night).
how much sleep is enough
How Much Sleep is Enough?
  • Individual—ranges between 5-10 hours—7 ½ average
  • Seem to have an innate sleep pattern
  • Too much sleep can make you feel sluggish
  • Listen to your body
how to sleep better
How to Sleep Better
  • Regular
  • Sleep ritual
  • No caffeine/nicotine late in the day
  • Don’t rely on alcohol
  • Don’t nap during the day
  • Exercise, but not too close to bedtime
  • Use your bed only for sleep-related activities
  • If you can’t fall asleep, get up
techniques for managing stress1
Techniques for Managing Stress
  • Time Management
  • Energy Management
    • Say “NO” to procrastination
    • Say “YES” to: Setting priorities


Realistic Goals


techniques for managing stress2
Techniques for Managing Stress
  • Cognitive Techniques
    • Think and Act constructively
    • Take control
    • Problem solve
    • Modify the experiences/Reframe
    • Stay positive
relaxation techniques
Relaxation Techniques
  • Deep Breathing
  • Progressive Relaxation
  • Visualization
  • Meditation
  • Yoga
  • Music
  • Biofeedback
counterproductive coping strategies
Counterproductive Coping Strategies
  • Tobacco use
  • Alcohol
  • Other drugs
  • Binge eating
personal plan for managing stress
Personal Plan for Managing Stress
  • Identify the Stressor
  • Designing your Plan
    • Personal contract
  • Getting Help
  • Health Quest Assignment