Speaking out to persuade others Martin Luther King, Jr.’s powerful “I Have a Dream” speech helped convince Congress to pass landmark civil rights legislation. It also continues to influence people of all ages to believe in and work to achieve their personal dreams. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3vDWWy4CMhE
Speaking to Persuade others Persuasive speeches such as Dr. King’s can move listeners to tears and inspire them to move mountains. Politicians, advertisers, and businesspeople—and students who want more input into school policy, later curfews, or a larger allowance—all use persuasive speeches to help them reach their goals.
Persuasive Texts and Media • Advertisements • Editorials • Speeches • Propaganda • Reviews • Blogs • Persuasive Essays
Editorials and Opinion Pieces • Editorials about current issues appear in newspapers and magazines, or on television, radio, and the internet.
Speeches Convince an audience to take action or think in a particular way.
Propaganda Often about political issues that usually includes emotionally charged appeals
Book and Movie Reviews Reviews evaluate items like books or movies and state an opinion as to whether the product is worth the reader’s time and money.
Your Persuasive Essays! Persuasive essays use logic, reason, and emotion to convince readers to join the writer in a certain point of view. • Ethos (ethical)- Is the speaker’s proposal the right thing to do? • Pathos (emotional)- Will accepting the speaker’s proposal make me feel better? • Logos (logical)- Does the speaker’s proposal make sense?
Logos-Logical (Greek for “word”) • Often contain expert testimony • Often contain statistical information • Suggest that the product is the “logical” or “right” choice
Ethos- Ethical • Do the “right” thing! • (Greek for “character”)
Pathos • Emotional appeal (Greek for “suffering” or “experience”)
More Pathos • Remember not all emotional appeals are sad…
Kairos (Greek for “right time,” “season” or “opportunity”) • Refers to the “timeliness” of an argument. • “What’s hot now”
Rhetorical Devices Rhetorical question: thoughtful questions that aren’t meant to be answered. • Can we really expect the school to keep paying from its limited resources? Hypophora: asking a question and answering it. • But what was the result of this move on the steel industry? The annual reports for that year clearly indicate. . . . Description and Imagery
Rhetorical Devices Figurative Language (i.e. using metaphor, simile and personification) • While we wait and do nothing, we must not forget that the fuse is already burning. Anaphora: the intentional repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of a line for emphasis. • Will he read the book? Will he learn what it has to teach him? Will he live according to what he has learned? • Not time, not money, not laws, but willing diligence will get this done. Hyperbole (using exaggeration for effect) - While we await your decision, the whole school holds its breath.
Let’s take a visual look at a great speech! • The Great Dictator starring Charlie Chapman in his first speaking role! • Satire of Hitler’s Nazi Germany • At the time we were not yet at war with Germany and we were trying to keep the peace (1940) • Think about Charlie’s delivery • Voice inflection • Body language • Pacing • What is he saying about human nature? (answer this question as you watch, I will ask you about it at the end)
Now let’s look at a contrasting but another great speech! • 1987 movie Wall Street • Archetype (classic example) hustler/trickster Gordon Gekko • Insider trading scandals were in the news • 1980s were an era of excess on Wall Street • Think about Gekko’s charisma and his business “ethos” • How does he present his argument? • What does he say about human nature and greed? (answer these questions while you watch, we will discuss at the end of the video)
How to start your own Persuasive Speech • A successful persuasive speech should • open with a clear statement of the issue and your opinion • be geared to the audience you’re trying to persuade • provide facts, examples, statistics, and reasons to support your opinion • answer opposing views • show clear reasoning • include strategies such as frequent summaries to help listeners remember your message • end with a strong restatement of your opinion or a call to action
How to present your Persuasive Speech • A successful presenter should • convey enthusiasm, confidence, and knowledge • stand with professional, but relaxed, posture and make eye contact with the entire audience • include gestures and body language to enhance the presentation • incorporate visual aids effectively • allow for audience interaction
Planning and Writing your speech • Clarify your position. How do you feel about the issue and why do you feel this way? • Find support for your position. What research will you have to do to back up your case? Where can you find that information? Which evidence will help you make your point most effectively? • Identify your audience.What do your listeners already know about the issue? What is their stand on it?
Planning and Writing your speech • Consider how to grab your listeners’ attention. What startling statistics, amusing anecdotes, or intriguing questions can you use to hook your audience at the beginning? • Decide how to present your arguments? How can you organize your arguments so they have the greatest impact? Do you want to begin with the argument your audience will probably agree with and move to more controversial points? Would starting with the strongest argument—or ending with it—work better?
Problem-Solution Outline • State the problem • It’s causes • State your solution • How it would benefit us • How is it better than other proposed solutions If this is the type of outline that would fit your topic let me know and I will give you the outline to follow.
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Plan • Need (why does this need to change or what is the problem) • Satisfaction (This is why… is a good idea. This is the solution to the problem) • The other side says… but this is why it is wrong… • Visualization (this is what the solution or changes will look like…see how awesome these changes would be?)
How to conduct research for your speech • Make sure to keep a list of all your sources! • Try to use reliable sources like journals and magazines • Wikipedia is okay for general information but you can’t go indepth • Realize that you may be reading someone’s opinion • Make sure to get the facts from both sides! • Let’s check out google together: Topic-Soda
Putting it all together • Think about how you will present your speech. What kind of visual aid will you use? What verbal and nonverbal techniques will work best to capture and maintain your audience’s interest and attention? • Remember to cover everything on the rubric!
Practice, Practice, Practice • The best way to practice your speech is to present it aloud—again and again. • Try speaking in front of a mirror so you can evaluate and improve your posture, gestures, eye contact, and use of visual aids. • You might record your practice session so you can critique your voice quality and effectiveness.
Best practices for Speech Delivery • Use your voice effectively. Speak loudly enough to be heard, but vary your pitch and tone. • Maintain eye contact. Look directly at a members of the audience while you speak, moving your eyes from person to person. • Incorporate gestures and facial expressions. Let your emotions show in your face—particularly in your eyes and mouth. • Use visual aids. Organize your information into a brochure, power point, etc. using charts, graphs, or drawings that will reinforce your message. Make sure your materials are large enough and clear enough that everyone in the audience can read them.
What you need to avoid • Contradictions • A contradiction occurs when one asserts two mutually exclusive propositions, such as, “Abortion is wrong and abortion is not wrong.” Since a claim and its contradiction can not both be true, one of them must be false. • Fallacy • A fallacy is an attractive but unreliable piece of reasoning. Writers do not want to make obvious fallacies in their reasoning, but they are often used unintentionally, or when the writer thinks they can get away with faulty logic.
Fallacies • Ad hominem • Latin for "against the man". Personally attacking your opponents instead of their arguments. It is an argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, feeling rather than intellect. • Appeal to authority • The claim that because somebody famous supports an idea, the idea must be right. This fallacy is often used in advertising (ethos)
Fallacies • Appeal to the bandwagon • The claim, as evidence for an idea, that many people believe it, or used to believe it, or do it. In the 1800's there was a widespread belief that bloodletting cured sickness. All of these people were not just wrong, but horribly wrong, because in fact it made people sicker. Clearly, the popularity of an idea is no guarantee that it's right. • Appeal to emotion • An attempt to replace a logical argument with an appeal to the audience’s emotions. Common emotional appeals are an appeal to sympathy, an appeal to revenge, an appeal to patriotism –basically any emotion can be used as an appeal. • Slippery slope • The assumption that once started, a situation will continue to its most extreme possible outcome. “If you drink a glass of wine, then you’ll soon be drinking all the time, and then you’ll become a homeless alcoholic.