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School Counseling - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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School counseling l.jpg

School Counseling

PowerPoint produced by Melinda Haley, M.S., New Mexico State University.

“This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:

any public performance or display, including transmission of an image over a network;

preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images;

any rental, lease, or lending of the program.”

“Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

School counselors often:

Coordinate schoolwide testing.

Administer educational assessments.

Interprets test data to parents, teachers and other professionals.

Counselors collect data on students’ abilities, achievements, interests, attitudes and behaviors.

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

AssessmentIndividual Analysis

Comprises the instruments A description of student

used to gather data for behaviors with an

student appraisal. emphasis and strengths.

Interpretation Measurement

A process that explains Assigns a numerical value

and gives meaning to or evaluative description to

various data collected. the trait being studied.


Gives a specific identification, grouping

and categorization of measurement results.

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Standardized Testing

The use of these tests are very controversial.

One criticism is that these tests are not usually “culture fair” and are culturally biased.

Another criticism is that they are not always interpreted fairly or accurately.

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Student Appraisal/Assessment


A test is a standardized measure when it is administered and scored according to uniform procedures.

Responsibility for standardizing tests rest with both the developer and the user.

Standardized tests use norms and standardized samples.

When reporting results, standardized tests use either age norms or grade norms.

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Curve Distribution Theory

States that on any given trait, individual scores will cluster near the center range of scores and gradually taper off at the extremes.

The central score is called the mean, median or mode and all are averages of central tendency.

The statistical term used to describe students who vary from the average score is called the measure of variability.

There are two types of variability, the range and the standard deviation.

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Norm Referenced Tests

These are tests that compare an individual student’s performance to the performance of a group.

The student’s score reflects how the student did in comparison to the students upon whom the test was normed.

Norm-referenced tests are useful in order to understand how a particular student is doing compared to same-aged or grade peers.

They are not useful to indicate mastery over a particular subject matter.

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Criterion-Referenced Tests

These tests assess a student’s performance in terms of specific standards or learning objectives.

Test results are reported as the percentage of correct items in a particular knowledge or skill area.

Teachers and counselors can use these tests to describe the performance of a particular student in relationship to learning goals and objectives.

These tests are also useful in curriculum development.

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Selection of Tests

Because school counselors are trained in tests and measurements, they are often called upon to help select tests used in their schools.

Some tools counselors use to learn about tests are:

Mental Measurements Yearbook

Tests in Print

ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and


Standards for Educational and Psychological


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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Why is a Test Needed?

If tests are selected arbitrarily, without clear purpose, the benefits of testing are lost.

In selecting the appropriate test, a counselor must look at what he or she wants to accomplish. What are the goals?

Questions that Need to be Asked

Will the test be administered individually or in groups?

Does the school budget cover the cost of the proposed test?

Does the person administering the test need specialized


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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Content Validity

When the items on a test are a fair

representation of the domain

of knowledge that the test measures.


The degree to which an

assessment actually measures

what it says it does.

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Criterion-Related Validity

The effectiveness of a test in

predicting a student’s performance.

Construct Validity

Does the test measure the

construct tt is designed to measure?

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Reliability Coefficient

It is expressed as a single

digit ranging from

+1.00 to -1.00


+ 0.95


The degree to which an

assessment instrument

yields consistent


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The degree to which

two variables are


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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Determining Test Usefulness

The following questions should help counselors decide which tests might be useful.

How much time will it take to administer the test?

Will the test produce useable results?

Are the test results clear and understandable or do they take interpretation?

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Student Appraisal/Assessment


Any deviation from required testing procedures threatens the standardization of norm and criterion referenced tests.

Counselors must follow directions explicitly!

Three documents can aid counselors in the proper testing procedures:

Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education

Standards for Educational and Psychological testing

Responsibilities of Users of Standardized Tests

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Student Appraisal/Assessment


Accurate analysis of test scores is critical in helping counselors and administrators provide adequate instruction, proper placement, and in assisting students.

Counselors use test data to identify student strengths and weaknesses and help students make decisions.

Counselors often explain and interpret test scores to parents.

Counselors also use test data to help teachers improve instruction.

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Achievement Tests

Interest Inventories

Personality Tests

Aptitude Tests

Student Appraisal/Assessment

Types of Assessment Instruments

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Student Appraisal/Assessment






And Time


Other Assessment Techniques

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Sociometric Methods

Help teachers and counselors evaluate student relationships.

Identifies who is popular and who is isolated.

Sociometric methods should consider the following:

How long has the group of students have been together?

The age of the students.

How large is the group being studied.

Is the activity familiar to the students?

Is the appraisal process appropriate for this group?

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

Writing (Children write essays about themselves and journal).

Biographical and Self-Expression Techniques

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  • Play and Drama (Toys, role-playing, games etc.)

  • Art Work (Clay, paints, drawing etc.)

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Student Appraisal/Assessment

  • Axis I: Clinical Disorders

  • Axis II: Mental Retardation and Personality Disorders

  • Axis III: General Medical Conditions

  • Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems

  • Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)

The DSM-IV-TR and the School Counselor

Counselors should have a working knowledge of the DSM-IV-TR and understand what different diagnoses mean.

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School Counseling Presentation Resources

Schmidt, J. J. (2003). Counseling in schools: Essential services and comprehensive programs, 4th ed. Boston, MA.: Allyn & Bacon.

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