The Rise and Fall of Bureaucracy: WHY A NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT; WHY NOW? http://www.willamette.edu/~fthompso/MgmtCon/Fordism_%26_Postfordism.html. Transaction Cost Analysis. Markets and organizations are alternative venues for exchange
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The Rise and Fall of Bureaucracy:WHY A NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT; WHY NOW?http://www.willamette.edu/~fthompso/MgmtCon/Fordism_%26_Postfordism.html
For example: NYC Dept. of Sanitation
The market restored?
Versus hierarchy -- virtual organizations
Versus government -- deregulation & privatization
Radical downsizing, decentralization, and de-specialization
Time-based structures, process focused designs, Networked organizational structures
EVENTS THAT TRIGGER INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATION GovernmentDemographic changesNew knowledgeGap between expected and actual events or outcomes— i.e., unanticipated or surprising success or failureChronic dissatisfaction with actual outcomesMood or fashion changes