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Land Application. PHOSPHORUS CYCLE.  Click a Pool to Begin Tour. HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION. PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES. PLANT UPTAKE as H 2 PO 4 - or HPO 4 2-. HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT (~50% of P in phytic acid form). Microbial Decomposition. MICROBIAL SINK.

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slide1

Land Application

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

Click a Pool to Begin Tour

HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION

PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES

PLANT UPTAKE as H2PO4- or HPO42-

HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT(~50% of P in phytic acid form)

Microbial Decomposition

MICROBIAL SINK

Mineralization

Immobilization

Aided by

Mycorrhiza

SOIL

WIND EROSION

MINERALFERTILIZER

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

SURFACE RUNOFF

Weathering

Eutrophication

  • ROCKBOUND
  • Apatite
  • Fluorapatite
  • Chlorapatite
  • Hydroxlapatite

LEACHING

Eutrophication

WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS

By: Damon Wright, 2000; Clyde Alsup and Michelle Armstrong, 1998; Asrat Shaiferaw, 1994; and Jerry Speir, 1996

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide2

Land Application

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES

PLANT UPTAKE as H2PO4- or HPO42-

HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT(~50% of P in phytic acid form)

Microbial Decomposition

MICROBIAL SINK

Mineralization

Immobilization

Aided by

Mycorrhiza

SOIL

WIND EROSION

MINERALFERTILIZER

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

SURFACE RUNOFF

Weathering

  • ROCKBOUND
  • Apatite
  • Fluorapatite
  • Chlorapatite
  • Hydroxlapatite

LEACHING

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide3

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

SOIL

MINERALFERTILIZER

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

Weathering

  • ROCKBOUND
  • Apatite
  • Fluorapatite
  • Chlorapatite
  • Hydroxlapatite

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide4

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

SOIL

MINERALFERTILIZER

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer
  • ROCKBOUND
  • Apatite
  • Fluorapatite
  • Chlorapatite
  • Hydroxlapatite

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide5

Land Application

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION

HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT(~50% of P in phytic acid form)

SOIL

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide6

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION

PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES

PLANT UPTAKE as H2PO4- or HPO42-

HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT(~50% of P in phytic acid form)

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide7

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION

PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES

PLANT UPTAKE as H2PO4- or HPO42-

Aided by

Mycorrhiza

SOIL

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide8

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION

PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES

PLANT UPTAKE as H2PO4- or HPO42-

Microbial Decomposition

SOIL

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide9

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

MICROBIAL SINK

Mineralization

Immobilization

SOIL

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide10

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

SOIL

WIND EROSION

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide11

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

SOIL

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

SURFACE RUNOFF

Eutrophication

WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide12

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

WIND EROSION

SURFACE RUNOFF

Eutrophication

LEACHING

Eutrophication

WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide13

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

SOIL

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

LEACHING

Eutrophication

WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS

MAIN CYCLE

MORE INFO

slide14

Aided by

Mycorrhiza

Weathering

Eutrophication

Eutrophication

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

Click a Pool to SearchWeb Links

HUMAN and ANIMAL CONSUMPTION

PLANT and ANIMAL RESIDUES

PLANT UPTAKE as H2PO4- or HPO42-

HUMAN and ANIMAL EXCREMENT(~50% of P in phytic acid form)

Microbial Decomposition

MICROBIAL SINK

Mineralization

Land Application

Immobilization

SOIL

WIND EROSION

MINERALFERTILIZER

ORGANIC P

INORGANIC P

Non-Labile

Labile

Soil Solution

  • Humic acid
  • Inositol phosphates
  • Phospholipids
  • Phosphate sugars
  • Nucleic acids
  • Specific adsorption to Fe, Al,+ Mn oxides and broken clay edges
  • Precipitation of Ca or Mg-P at pH>7
  • Precipitation of Fe, Al, or Mn-P at pH<5
  • Weakly sorbed phosphates
  • Newly-precipitated Fe, Al, or Mn-P in acid soils
  • Newly precipitated Ca or Mg-P in alkaline soils
  • Phosphate released from labile pool or added via fertilizer

SURFACE RUNOFF

  • ROCKBOUND
  • Apatite
  • Fluorapatite
  • Chlorapatite
  • Hydroxlapatite

LEACHING

WATERBODIES and SEDIMENTS

By: Damon Wright, 2000; Clyde Alsup and Michelle Armstrong, 1998; Asrat Shaiferaw, 1994; and Jerry Speir, 1996

START AGAIN

MORE INFO

additional information on phosphorus
Form taken up by plant: H2PO4-, HPO4=

Mobility in soil: None; roots must come in direct contact with orthophosphate P

Mobility in plant: Yes

Deficiency symptoms: Lower leaves with purple leaf margins

Deficiency pH range: <5.5 and >7.0

Toxicity symptoms: None

Toxicity pH range:Non toxic (optimum availability pH 6.0-6.5)

Role in plant growth: Important component of phospholipids and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

Role in microbial growth: Accumulation and release of energy during cellular metabolism

Concentration in plants: 1,000 – 5,000 ppm (0.1 –0.5%)

Effect of pH on availability: H2PO4- at pH < 7.2

HPO4= at pH > 7.2

Interactions with otherP x N, P x Zn at high pH, in anion nutrients: exchange P displaces S, K by mass action displaces Al inducing P deficiency (pH<6.0)

BACK TO MAIN CYCLE

Additional Information on Phosphorus

MORE INFO

additional information on phosphorus cont

BACK TO MAIN CYCLE

Additional Information on Phosphorus (Cont.)
  • P fertilizer sources: Rock phosphate, phosphoric acid, Ca orthophosphates, ammoniumphosphates, ammonium poly-phosphates, nitric phosphates, K phosphates, microbial fertilizers (phosphobacterins) increase P uptake
  • Additional categories:
  • Mineralization/ C:P ratio of < 200: net mineralization of immobilization: organic P; C:P ratio of 200-300: no gain/loss of inorganic P; C:P ratio of >300: net immobilization of inorganic P
  • P fixation: Formation of insoluble Ca, Al, and Fe phosphates
  • Al(OH)3 + H2PO4- Al(OH)2HPO4
  • (Soluble) (Insoluble)
  • Organic P sources: Inositol phosphate (Esters of orthophosphoric acid), phospholipids,nucleic acids, phosphate sugars
  • Inorganic P sources: Apatite and Ca phosphate (unweathered soils) and Fe and Al sinks from P fixation (weathered soils)
  • Waste: Poultry litter (3.0 to 5.0%), steel slag (3.5%), electric coal ash (<1.0%)

MORE INFO

additional information on phosphorus cont17

BACK TO MAIN CYCLE

Additional Information on Phosphorus (Cont.)
  • Total P levels in soil: 50 – 1500 mg/kg
  • Solution concentration range: < 0.01 to 1.0 ppm
  • Applied fertilizer: < 30% recovered in plants, more P mustbe added than removed by crops

References:

  • Alexander, M., 1977. Introduction to Soil Microbiology. 2nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, NY.
  • Brady, N.C., 1990. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 10th Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co., NY.
  • Brigham Young University. 1997. The Phosphorus Cycle. http://ucs.byu.edu/bioag/aghort/214pres/geochem.htm
  • Harrison, A.F., 1987. Soil Organic Phosphorus. A Review of World Literature. C.A.B. p.39.
  • Pierre, W.H., 1948. The Phosphorus Cycle and Soil Fertility. J. Amer. Soc. of Agron., 40:1-14.
  • Pierzynski, G.M., Sims, J.T., and Vance, G.F., 1994. Soil and Environmental Quality. Lewis Publishers, FL.
  • Stewart, J.W.B., and Sharpley, A.N., 1987. Controls on Dynamics of Soil and Fertilizer Phosphorus and Sulfur in Soil Fertility and Organic Matter as Critical Components of Production Systems, SSSA Spec. Pub. No.19, 101-121.
  • Tiessen, H., 1995. Phosphorus in the Global Environment – Transfers, Cycles and Management. John Wiley and Sons, NY.
  • Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., Beaton, J.D. and Havlin, J.L., 1993. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. Macmillan Publishing Co., NY.