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Peppermint Oil ( Mentha Piperita ). Abeer Khattab-History Jennifer Hadra-Chemistry Amanda Trudeau-Research History. Peppermint – Mentha piperita. Family Name : Labiatae Other Name : Mentha It is an aromatic herbaceous plant of the mint family

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peppermint oil mentha piperita

Peppermint Oil (Mentha Piperita)

Abeer Khattab-History

Jennifer Hadra-Chemistry

Amanda Trudeau-Research History

peppermint mentha piperita
Peppermint – Mentha piperita
  • Family Name :Labiatae
  • Other Name : Mentha
  • It is an aromatic herbaceous plant of the mint family
  • Distribution : Originated in Europe and early English colonists brought it to North America
  • It is also grown in England, Russia, and other European countries, where it become a very common plant.
description of peppermint plant
Leaf: Opposite, stems are square in across section, oval looking smooth and sharply pointed, evenly toothed, dark green, slightly rough underneath .

Flower: Small and pale purple, born on leafless terminal spikes in loose disconnected whorls.

Fruit and Bark : None .

Form : Grows 1- 3 feet, plant grows best in dark, moist soil, related to spearmint.

Description of Peppermint Plant
essential oils of peppermint
Essential Oils of Peppermint
  • It is the source of essential oils which are monoterpene, mainly synthesized in leaves, the first step in plastids by (4S)- Limonene synthase enzyme, but the succeeding steps occur outside the leucoplasts of oil gland cells.
  • The principal constituent of peppermint oil is Menthol (C10 H19 OH) which is white crystalline substance, has the peppermint odor and produces a sensation of cold in the mouth ---why?
essential oils of peppermint5
Essential Oils of Peppermint

Dr. David Julius’s lab at the University of California, San Francisco, discovered that menthol activates cold receptors in our tissues called CMR1 receptors.

They have the same structure and way of working like VR1 receptors for sensation of cold and heat (menthol and capsaicin).

history of peppermint use
History of Peppermint Use
  • Peppermint was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians and used by the Greek and Roman cooks as a flavoring for wines and sauces.
  • Some Asian countries have cultivated mint since ancient times.
  • It has been used in Europe and western medicine for a variety of ailments including toothaches, morning sickness and cramping.
  • It was brought to the U.S.A. early in the 19th century.
history of peppermint use contd
History of Peppermint Use (Contd.)
  • These plants were the foundation of what are today the largest peppermint centers in the world like the northeastern united states.
  • Now practically the Midwestern states of Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, and Wisconsin, all decreasing production.
  • The far western states of Oregon, and Washington are now the major of American peppermint oil.
  • Peppermint oil is used as a flavoring agent in pharmaceuticals, elixirs, food, and beverages especially chewing gum and candy, there is some use as a fragrance.
cezanne paul
Cezanne, Paul
  • Still life with Peppermint bottle
  • 1890 –94, Oil on canvas, national Gallery of Art Washington, D . C.
  • One of the most original of Cezanne’s still life
products and uses of peppermint
Products and Uses of Peppermint
  • Used in Middle eastern salad called tabbouleh combined with parsley giving it the delicious taste due to its delightful flavor.
  • Leaves of Peppermint used for flavoring tea added directly green or dried produced as packages called Peppermint tea which could be used separately as a hot drink like tea, Native
products and uses of peppermint10
Products and Uses of Peppermint
  • Peppermint oil is most popular for flavoring candy, to give medicines, mouthwashes, and toothpaste a good taste, also used newly as lip balm recipe, it is the first aid for toothache being antiseptic and possessing a local anesthetic effect
products and uses of peppermint11
Products and Uses of Peppermint
  • Peppermint oil is also a soothing remedy for colds and flu.

Fresh crushed leaves can be applied locally to relieve pain, in paths it can be used to relieve rheumatic and muscle pains.

  • It is well known for its digestive properties, used to relieve indigestion, wind, colic, nausea, diarrhea,and Crohns disease, stomach ulcers and ulcerative colitis.
major compound menthol
Major Compound Menthol

Compounds from the peppermint plant are extracted from the leaves. Peppermint has a wide variety of uses. Some of those include:

Flavorings: water, toothpaste, teas etc.

Common cold

Candies Bronchitis

Aromatherapy Sinus

Antacid/Anti-nausea tablets Fever

Genetic Engineering Vomiting

medical uses dosage side effects
Medical Uses/Dosage/Side Effects

Common cold Antispasmodic agent

Bronchitis Increase Esophageal Acid Clearance

Sinus

Fever

Vomiting

slide16

At this time dosage amounts are unclear. Several studies were reviewed and concluded that there were no reported side effects or tissue damage with the use of peppermint

mode of action
Mode of Action
  • In hospital studies where peppermint oil was used as an antispasmatic is believed to act on beta-adrenergic receptors and uses a G-coupled protein pathway.
  • (This is currently a hypothesis, no formal study has actually concluded in the exact pathway of peppermint as an antispasmatic.)
mode of action18
Mode of Action
  • Other studies that used peppermint as an antacid concluded that using peppermint in the form of an oral lozenge increased swallowing rate, which in turn increased esophageal acid clearance.
research history
Research History
  • Treatment for:
    • Postoperative nausea
    • Headache
    • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    • Dyspepsia
other studies
Other Studies
  • Cosmetic Use
  • Use with other substances
    • Caraway oil
    • Eucalyptus oil
postoperative nausea
Postoperative Nausea
  • Study in UK
  • Hypothesis:
    • Inhalation of peppermint oil will affect incidence and severity of gynecological surgical patients
  • Outcome: Incidence of Nausea
    • Control Group-100%
    • Placebo Group-100%
    • Experimental Group-67%
headache
Headache
  • Germany
  • Double Blind Study
    • 32 healthy subjects
    • Combinations of:
    • Peppermint oil + Eucalyptus Oil:
      • Significant reduction of EMG surface activity of temporal muscle
irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • United States (2000)
  • Women 14-24%
  • Men 5-19%
  • 3x more likely to miss work
irritable bowel syndrome24
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Randomized Clinical Trials
  • Studies Showed Improvement in:
    • Abdominal pain
    • Stool frequency
    • Flatulence
dyspepsia
Dyspepsia
  • Dyspepsia, which means "bad" (dys) "digestion" (pepsia)
  • Term used by doctors to describe a set of symptoms which are believed to have their cause somewhere in the upper part of the gastro-intestinal tract 
dyspepsia26
Dyspepsia
  • Pain intensity reduced 40%
  • Pressure reduced 43%
  • Placebo Reduction in both 22%
cosmetics
Cosmetics

Peppermint oil in 102 products

  • Bath oils
  • Hair conditioners
  • Lipstick
  • Makeup Base
  • Shaving Cream
  • Soaps
  • Nail Creams
cosmetics28
Cosmetics
  • Mostly performed on rats, mice, bacteria, and dogs
  • Oral Toxicity
  • Immunotoxicity
  • Dermal Irritation
  • Reproductive Toxicity
  • Carcinogenicity
safety
Safety
  • No significant side effects
  • Safe to use in products
  • Pulegone-component found in peppermint oil may be an irritant